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Chapter 9 notes.docx

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Connie Boudens

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Chapter 9: Regulation and Motivation: Self-Determination Theory Self-determination theory: how people adjust their responses to the environment, both consciously and unconsciously. The reasons why we do something are more important than what we do Extrinsically motivated: acting because of some external pressures like rewards or punishments (failing an assignment), we may not enjoy the activity as much, perform our best, or continue the behaviour on our own Intrinsically motivated: acting out of our own desires and by our own choice doing things that are fun or satisfying to us (making music), we enjoy what we are doing and increase our well-being in the process THREE FUNDAMENTAL PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS Humanistic tradition: emphasizes responsibility, growth, and the actualizing tendency Actualizing tendency: motive to actualize or bring about growth and positive change (a weed has motivation and grows even from underneath the sidewalk) 3 Basic and universal psychological needs: Autonomy- feeling free and able to make choices about one’s actions, being self-regulating and able to determine one’s own actions and plans, as opposed to feeling like a pawn at the mercy of others or fate (provided by autonomy support) Competence- feeling effective in one’s actions and having the opportunities and experiences to exercise, expand, and express one’s abilities (provided by structure, optimal challenge) Relatedness- feeling connected to others, having people to care for, and to receive care from (provided by involvement- time, interest, energy) HOW DO WE SATISFY THESE NEEDS? Strategies that help individuals develop and express their own self are autonomy supportive; the opposite of autonomy support is control Giving children choices over some behaviours, even if parents may not agree with those choices, helps children build a sense of autonomy Optimally challenging: tasks that are too difficult, where the demand outpaces the person’s skills, may cause the person to feel frustrated and then worried and anxious. Tasks that are too easy may cause relaxation and then boredom Flow: (a positive state) engagement in tasks that have a clear set of goals, that require appropriate responses, give immediate feedback, and in which people are operating at their maximum capacity -an experience marked by complete absorption, deep enjoyment, intense concentration, and almost an altered state, as people block out all irrelevant stimuli and focus entirely on the task at hand -athletes call this “being in the zone” Autonomy-supportive teachers spend time listening to students, giving them time to talk, and take the students’ perspective. These behaviours establish a sense of warmth, affection, and acceptance of students, fostering relatedness In contrast, controlling teachers seem to ignore the teacher-student relationship altogether and focus on correct answers and desired classroom behaviours instead Overjustification effect: undermining of intrinsic interest, rewards will decrease the desired behaviour -external motivators such as deadlines, imposed goals, competition, surveillance, and evaluations may undermine intrinsic interest and performance if they are used to control (depriving autonomy) instead of for information (to increase competence) CONNECTION BETWEEN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY AND OTHER THEORIES IN PERSONALITY Locus of control: describes the connection between choice and behaviour; the extent to which people feel free to choose their own behaviours or follow their own interests -A person who expects to control his/her own fate, or who perceives that rewards are dependent on his/her own behaviour (amount of time spent studying for exam)has an internal locus of control -A person who sees his/her life as being controlled by external forces- chance, luck, or fate (the prof marked the exam easy) unaffected by his/her own behaviour has an external locus of control Locus of causality: connection between choice and behaviour Locus of causality (autonomy) is slightly different from locus of control: people may understand the contingency between their behaviour and some outcome and are able to control their behaviours (locus of control), but they may not want to or feel free to engage in those behaviours (locus of causality) The opposite of autonomy is compliance (compliance to conformity to norms and obedience to a direct order) or defiance, both of which occur in direct response to the controlling actions of another Anytime a person gives in to external (rewards, punishments) or internal (guilt) pressures to behave in a certain way, he/she is behaving without autonomy Self-efficacy: belief that one can be competent and effective at some activity -predicts how motivated a person will be before and during an activity 2 parts to self-efficacy beliefs:  Outcome expectation- belief that behaving in a certain way will produce a certain outcome  Efficacy expectation- belief that one is capable of acting in a certain way; the expectation about whether a person will succeed or fail at performing the required action According to the self-efficacy theory, the efficacy expectation is more important that the outcome expectation We develop our self-efficacy beliefs from 4 sources of information:  Personal experiences- (most direct way) successes build efficacy while failures decrease efficacy Ex: having a bad experience while skiing is likely to keep a person off the slopes for a long time and maybe even forever!  Vicarious experiences- watching another person enact the behaviour and succeed or fail and then trying it ourselves (from observing others we can see what the task is about and we can anticipate what can happen when it is our turn) Ex: seeing a spectacular move of an athlete or dancer and think that maybe you can do that, or maybe that you could never do that  Social persuasion- friends, coaches, teachers, or therapists might be able to convince another person that he or she is capable of taking a desired action Ex: their persuasion often involves changing efficacy expectations (“Yes, you can call him. Just take a deep breath and dial his #”), but can also involve outcome expec
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