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Chapter 11 notes.docx

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Connie Boudens

Chapter 11: Gender and Personality The aspect of spatial reasoning where participants have to mentally rotate a figure, is one of the largest gender differences in cognitive ability (men are better than women) Differences in mental rotation can be seen in infants as young as 3-5 months of age BELIEFS ABOUT PERSONALITY SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN Communal: women are concerned with other people and the social group, being interdependent, and feeling connected with others and with the group Agency: men focus on the individual and feelings of self-protection and self-assertion Effect size: the impact or importance of a variable to the overall observed effect - the effect size d is calculated as a ration of difference between genders compared to individual variability within a gender PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN The results of the many effect size analyses summarized suggests that men and women are the most different when it comes to physical attributes such as height and strength Men prefer realistic occupations (involving machines, equipment, and inanimate object), whereas women prefer people-oriented occupations There are NO gender difference in general intelligence (no difference in verbal or mathematical ability), but there are some differences on specific types of mental abilities Substance related disorders (alcohol, drugs), childhood disorders (mental retardation, reading disorders, autism), and sexual and gender identity disorders (sexual masochism, fetishism, pedophilia) are more frequent among men than women Mood disorders (panic disorders, bipolar disorder, anorexia and bulimia) and depression are more frequent among women Some personality disorders (schizotypal personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, compulsive personality disorder) occur more in men whereas others (borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder) occur more among women Neuroticism shows the largest gender difference with women averaging higher neuroticism scores than men. Openness shows the smallest difference, where the genders are virtually identical Across all cultures, women tend to be only slightly higher than men in conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness When it comes to personality, men and women are more similar than different Men are more physically aggressive than women (d=0.40), but only slightly more verbally aggressive (d=0.18) Men are higher in impulsive sensation-seeking (bungee jumping), but they are only slightly more likely than women to engage in risky behaviours that may have undesirable or dangerous outcomes in their daily lives (speeding or running yellow lights) Women and men in many countries feel pressures to adhere to gender expectations about emotional expression (women present themselves as more empathetic in self-report measures than men do, even though they show similar signs of empathy) The effect size for democratic leadership (d=-0.22) suggests that women tend to share the power whereas men tend to be more autocratic WHAT CAUSES GENDER DIFFERENCES? Under stress, the sympathetic nervous system of females releases oxytocin in addition to epinephrine and norepinephrine. Oxytocin leads to “tend-and-befriend” response in women under stress In men, testosterone interacts with norepinephrine to increase the “fight-or-flight” response Gender socialization: produces toy preference and color preference among genders Androgen: hormone that stimulates and controls the development of
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