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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Kira A Borden

`PersonalityAssessment PersonalityAssessment: The process of evaluating individual differences: through tests (include written tests, physiological measures, interviews, and observations. Key thing: it involves Systematic: it has some system , some plan to it EX: paper and pencil test, standardized procedures for observing EX: testing a large number of ppl, and see the mean of that group, helps them see if there is more neurotic and more extroverted ppl. This how u ll see if someone is below/above average. measuring, and recording behaviours and personality features. What makes a good personality test? Reliability across: the test u used is going to give the same results no matter how many times ou test somebody, or no matter how many different ways you test. Time: different administration of the test -test-retest: common. Give a group of ppl the same test in two diff points in times and u shud expect to see a very strong score on their first test and their scores on the second test. If it is the exact same test, they are going to probably score a litte bit higher or better on the second one, and their score will vary somewhat but they will be similar. Items: reliability across items.Across individual items on the test. You wanna see correspondence on the items is because you are measuring the same thing. Items shud hang together. -chronbach‟s alpha (should be greater than .70) so the minimum would .70 that you would look for. .8 should be fairly realiable. Raters -interrater reliability when you are doing direct measurement. EX: watching ppl you are observing them for interpersonal aggression. Two observers-marking off interpersonal aggression for the same person. 1 being moderately aggressive,3 being extremely aggressive. If your observation data are strong correspondence on the way they rate, then its reliable. There might be problem with the observation. If you are not working on direct measurement: on questions ..check for fear. If there is disagreement between them, you can ask them to deceide with each other. Validity: it measure what it asks to measure. Measure of self efficacy- you want to make sure it‟s really measuring that. -Construct : the test is actually closely allying with the construct you are trying to measure. There are a lot of construct in psychology. Construct cannot be measured directly. Personality cannot be measure directly. So you have too see the things they say or do to measure personality. EX: if you look at confidence or self confidence, it‟s a construct because you can‟t measure directly. If you test has a contract validity, it better know it means. EX: complex construct as intelligence. Key thing: yes this test is valid and it is really measuring intelligence. Face: does the test look like whatever it is your trying to meaure. On the face of it does it seem to be for that particular concept? EX: measure of depression: high face validity: must ask for persons appetite, mood. Face scale for children to ask them how nauseous they feel. This is high face validity. It does look like what nausea look like. : . these are for kids that cant read. they don‟t have to imagine the scales of number. Criterion: predictive validity: how effective is the test as a criterion of something that you expect the person to be able to do. EX: college entering exam that they should know how well they will do on the test. Of special concern in test development: often when you develop a test, it is of something that has been studied before. Convergent validity: how much does the score on you measures converge with another measure that has already been establish. Discriminant validity : opposite. They are two different things. See low correlation between the two things. Types of PersonalityAssessment -Dream analysis: -Interviews -Observation -Objective Tests MMPI MBTI NEO - PI (r) Projective Tests Sentence completion Rorschach Inkblot Test ThematicApperception Test Dream Analysis Psychodynamic approach: Sigmund Freud Represts your unconsciousness desires band of marrying psychoanalytic men. Freud: Dreams represented the unconscious desires of the dreamer (Royal Road to the unconscious) he believed because dreams happen without the person conscious intervention, that they gave you a really direct access to the subconscious. -He used dream analysis, to work with their patients. He would ask them about their dreams n then see what was in their subconscious that was bothering them. This was one way of figuring was what that stuff was making that stuff conscious. He believed once its their it can resolve conflicts in your life. -To reduce anxiety, ego disguises the true (latent) ( hidden msg of the dream )contend of dreams using symbols (manifest content ) ( overcome the dream)(your unconscious desires would manifest themselves). Manifest content is analysed to discover repressed feelings. The river and elegator would be manifest. Latent contend would be her desire to get from one place to another or to overcome a barrier. Interviews: can learn about a persons personlity Face-to-face meeting to get information about someone‟s personality, current psychological state, personal history, etc. Unstructured: conversation informal, topics discussed as they arise. Structured : follows a pre-arranged plans, using series of planned questions. Less opportunity of bias. Semi-structure: some planned, and then ask follow up questions that an answer could bring about other questions that are unstructured. -paper and personal test are biased. Potential biases in interviews. Confirmation Bias: making an inference at the outset and asking questions to confirm it. EX: look at a person the way they are dressed and then interview them for their personality if you questions are unstructured or semi-structured you will probably ask question to confirm what you think about the person. Ex: ref person, u think they just came from India Halo effect : generalizations based on predominant features, which may be unrelated to personality EX: ppl who are very attractive, research finding that ppl attractive, ppl tend to automatically believe they have other better qualities. Social desirability : faking good (answers that think are more socially acceptable answers) dissimulation, faking bad (pretending to be tougher, meaner than you actually are EX: when you become part of the prison system) Observation Direct surveillance: assessing behavior thru. Selecting observers Professional personality assessors: trained professional assistants. Key disadvantage: they don‟t have acess to the participant all the time so you might ask: -People who actually know the target person. (Merei bête aise nahi hai ) -Often in better position to observe targets natural behaviors in a variety of contexts. -may be biased because of relationship to target EX: parents- would portray best way or worst way possible. Naturalistic vs.Artificial Observation Naturalistic: observers record events that occur in the normal course of lives of the participants. Artificial observation: occurs in artificial settings or situations. Advantage: controlling conditions and eliciting relevant behaviour. Albert bandura study: bobo doll study. Advantage were: all stimuli were the same for all participants. Objective Personality Measures Involve standard set of questions or statements. EX: I am easily embarrassed „ T or F I like to go to parties „ T or F Person‟s responses to standardized questions compared to established norms. Gives you a sense of if that person if below/above avg for that trait. From responses, develop a picture called a „personality profile‟: MBTI you are classified with one of the 16 categories, there is a profile with each one of them. MMTI gives a profile too Possible response options: T/F or Y/N Dimensional scales: 1to5. 1to7 scales. Visual analog: scale has graphic indicators..face scales, burf scales  (saw earlier with vomiting gu
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