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The Self Lecture Outline 5.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Kira A Borden

Lecture 5 The Self Self is a big topic in psychology It is comprises what we know about our selves There are different ways of defining self Self concept , self esteem , self identity William James: Two Perspectives on the Self – how we perceive our self 1. The self is composed of our thoughts and beliefs about ourselves, or what James called the “known” or “me” (watching yourself do things) 2. The self is also the active processor of information, the “knower,” or “I.” ( you become aware of when you are reflecting on your process) o In modern terms, we refer to the known aspect is the self concept (ME), and the knower aspect as self-awareness (I). o These two aspects of the self combine to create a coherent sense of identity: o EX: Self is both a book (ME -full of content collected over time and I- the reader of that book) o Article – “when a self become a problem” – when people started to think of themselves as a self Charles Horton Cooley- sociologist: The Looking Glass Self o Self can’t be understood in isolation--must be studied in interaction with others o Extends to the idea what who you are composed of interaction u have with other people o Self is not an inherent property of human nature, but a socially-constructed entity o The concept of Self was socially constructed by society as a whole o Sense of self is built upon seeing ourselves through the eyes of others o Looking glass self -The self you think other people see The chart – senses of self develops in conjunction to human development o Infant is young – physical awareness- they realize hands and feet’s are attached to them and they can make them move = infant cant understand that there is a physical body , they are fascinating at throwing things and picking up things ( shows infants is developing) ( they understand there is a ME and a NOT me) o self regulation – they understand there is other people in the world as well ( infants understand the difference between them and other people o self esteem –- theory of mind – understand other people have ideas and thoughts that are separate form their own o skills and abilities – demonstrating new talents o social comparison- comparing abilities with others o Private self-concept – understand that there are things about their self they know and others don’t and they don’t have to expose to others. o Identity- what other people think of them they also get aware of what people think of them o The self – people have a good idea of who they are and engage in internalizing society standards as part of self concepts ( society expectations ) Mirror test – some primates can recognize in the mirror (The rouge test -self-recognition) Self-Concept • All the beliefs people have about the self • Beliefs- the thoughts and ideas about your self that are true • Organizes and provides coherence for how we experience the self • Provides sense of continuity • So what : Ex: multiple personality disorder (then u wont know or remember anything about yourself ) EX: his wife goes for shopping , he thinks that she was gone for years so he greets her as she was gone for a long time Development of Self-Concept • Child’s self-concept is concrete, with observable characteristics • Like things they like t0 do or their hobbies are • Becomes more complex with age. • More emphasis on psychological states, (our thoughts and feelings) or opinions of others • Birth – 1=develop physical awareness • 2-3 years= recognize self in mirror and pictures • 3-4 years= develop skills and abilities, use personality traits in description of self and others • 5 – 6 years= make comparison with peers • Private sense of self develops • More concrete self-concept does self-concept develop • 9-10years= recognize and understand traits as enduing intra personal qualities • Adolescents= feel sensitivity to self and others • Use reflective appraisals • Question identity • Hold internalized view of generalized other- what the person understand as the common understanding of the society • More abstract motivations and personality characteristics • Extreme self-conscientiousness- things that motivate them and the needs and passions of themselves • Adults=experience identity influence from personal characteristics and culture • In general, good self-concept and stable self-esteem Means Through Which the Self-Concept Develops o Others’Images of You- The looking glass self, self appraisals and what people tell u about yourselves o Social Comparisons a. Superior/Inferior- people who u believe to be less than you or greater than you -comparisons are done in daily life routines EX: how you are better then a person and how you are lesser to a person b. Same/Different- you compare if you are similar to your friend or different to a friend o Culture- extremes of culture and how it effects a person self concept o Your Own Interpretations & Experiences- own refect
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