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Self and Identity.docx ch5

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Kira A Borden

Self and Identity 3 main theories: 1- Self-concept; 2- Self-esteem; 3- Self- Identity TST (Twenty Statement Test)- is a test used to measure people self concepts to compare different cultures Self-Concept- a set of ideas and inferences that you hold about yourself, including your traits, social roles, schemas and relationships. How does it develop?- experience, cognitive development , maturation We develop a sense of self out of physical development and cognitive maturation along with social experiences. The ability of being aware of having an experience and of reflecting oneself( having self-awareness- is believed of having a self- concept. Chimpanzees and Self- Recognition: Gordan Gallup Placed a chimpanzee in a room with full length mirror and examines the responses. For the 1-2 days the chimpanzee thought of the reflection as a companion showing social responses like threat. Soon the chimp started to recognize their reflection by performing certain grooming activities like picking food out of their teeth. After 10 days the chimps got tired and adapted to the presence of the mirror. NOW the mirror was removed and chimps were anesthetized. During which the researchers painted red marks near their eye brow and ear with paint. The chimps were now reintroduced with the mirrors and the chimps spent more than 25% of their time touching themselves. Though the other chimps who were not exposed to the mirror had no effect. Gallup and other saw chimp’s self- directed in this mirror test as evidence of self-recognition. It was also performed on other species like elephants, whales, dolphins, magpies. The above results of the mirror test were derived from chimps that were used to the lab. They were isolated from social contact since birth so sometimes they did not show any signs of self-recognition due to lack of socialization. Gallup and colleagues paired two similar isolated chimps for 3 months and exposed them to the mirror. They showed primary signs of self-recognition later. Who is that Baby in the Mirror? Age Developing aspect of SELF Acknowledgement 0-1 Physical self- awareness Recognizing ME vs. Not me 1-2 Self- recognition Mirror recognition 2-3 Self- esteem Internalizing standards for behavior 3-4 Skills and abilities Demonstrating new talents 5-12 Social comparison Comparing abilities with others Private Self- concept Keeping secrets Adolescence Identity Abstract thoughts Reflected appraisals Objective Self- awareness Adulthood The Self Internalizing societal expectations 1 year of age: they start to develop a sense of physical awareness. Avg. 18 months (1 ½ years) infants start to recognize themselves in the mirror. Only 25% of the infants were able to identify 9-12 months yet, by the age of 21-25 months 75% achieved self- recognition. 2-3 are able to recognize themselves in the mirror and in pictures since they have developed enough lingual skills to use words like “I”, “me”, and “mine”. They know few facts about themselves like sex, age, ethnic group and family and their self- concept will reflect this information. They also start to understand the expectations of behavior from parents and discriminate between good and bad behaviors. 3-4 years children will reflect their developing skills in front of strangers and often show off their accomplishments: “Aaj maine ye kalma seekha” The Developing Self in School. (5-12 years of age) They are further developing their developing skills while they are becoming aware of the abilities of other children as they enter school. 5-6 Comparing themselves with peers becomes very important and increases from this age.3-4 they UNDERSTAND personality characteristics and can use to describe other kids, however, at 5-6 they start progressing and describing other kids with personality attributes like smart. They even use traits to judge past behavior like calling someone a baby because they previously cried. But 9-10 they UNDERSTAND the actual recognition of these traits. They also tend to develop private sense of self at this age which cannot be shown to others. Refer to TST pg110-111 Adolescence and the Looking Glass Self. The ideas of are self-are more abstract, incorporation of motivations, beliefs, and personality characteristics than their childhood self- concepts 15-16 are sensitive to how they are perceived and judged by others. The period of EXTREME SELF- CONSCIOUSNESS. They also experience objective self- awareness as they start to see themselves as objects of other’s attention. Self- appraisals where teens internalize other’s evaluation of them, especially who are very important to the,, such as family and peers. This whole process is called Looking Glass Self, which forms the basis of self- esteem. (your self grows out of society interpersonal and perceptions of others. ) Charles cooley Teens tend to question they position in the society. Identity includes the definitions and standards that are imposed on us by others, including interpersonal aspects (roles and relationship) potentials (who we might become), and values (morals and priorities). People have identity from birth. Identity is socially defined Identity Crisis is understood as normal ( Erik Erikson said) . However, today there are questions on its existence. For example, teens who openly question the beliefs, values and goals of their parents may experience identity crises. In such a situation, they have 2 solutions: 1- to embrace the values; 2- to form a true self-identity and try incorporate these values in order to make personal meaning. Our Grown- Up Selves: Self- concept comes from within while identity comes from others. Stereotype threat: when a person experiences distress when faces with a stereotype that threatens his or her self- esteem or social identity. This results in poor performance which confirms the stereotype itself he or she was threatened by EX: if some one is bulling you by saying that you cant even speak in English it effects your self esteem Impact of Culture on Self- Concepts: the self is a product of social interaction. CODING SCHEME FOR TST (Twenty Statements Test ):PSA-G Category Description Examples Physical Physical qualities I am … male, 18 yrs old, short Social Social roles, membership, status I am … student, mother, Jewish Attributive Psycho or physiological traits I am … a warm person, high energy, introverted Global Comprehensive or vague description I am … human, light, me A study was conducted by comparing the TSTs of American and Japanese students. The results indicated that American students’ responses were more than 58% Attributed Self- description referring to their own psycho and physiological attributes while for Japanese students it was less than 19%. Japanese students described themselves in more social categories that is more than 27% compared to only 9% Americans. Individualism and Collectivism: Individualism focuses on the individual and distinguishes the person as separate from the group. Collectivism places greater emphasis on the views, needs, and goals of the group rather than the individual Every culture has both of these values. For eg when we are young we are dependent on our families and abide by the values of collectivism. Though when we grow up we tend to be more individualistic. Cultures that emphasize more on individualistic traits are called individualistic cultures; cultures that emphasize on collectivism are called collectivistic cultures (80% of the world’s pop). { Japan chinese and latino} Individualist cultures are due to cultural complexity , ecology and affluence Complexity – it increases the range of possible jobs within the society and forcing people to specialize rather than just do what everybody else does Ecology – when country geography forces a separation among its people or when individuals have migrated to distant land Affluence- individuals are less dependent on the group for survival and are free to cultivate their own interests. Independent and Interdependent Selves: Independent view of self can be acquired in individualistic cultures; Interdependent ( collectivistic cultures.) Independent self exists apart from other people and is autonomous and self- contained. They are encouraged to gain self- actualisation and they are truly themselves without others. An Independent self can be found in an individualistic culture like the American and Canadian. Interdependent self can be found in the collectivistic cultures like Asia, Latin America. People with very strong ethnic or religious beliefs may produce people with interdependent self even when they are living in an individualistic lifestyle. Key Differences between Independent and Interdependent self Feature Compared Independent Self Interdependent Self Definition Separate from social context Connected with social context Structure Bounded, unitary, stable Flexible, variable. Important features Internal, private(abilities, thoughts, External, public (statuses, roles, feelings) relationships) Tasks BE unique Belong, fit in
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