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Personality 11.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Kira A Borden

Personality: Chapter 11- Gender & Personality Beliefs about Personality similarities and differences Recognized as stereotypes: a generalization about a group of people, in which attributes are assumed to be true of all members of the group regardless of the actual variation among the group members - Women are believed to be more concerned with nurturing - Men are more concerned with actions and accomplishments o Traditional masculine occupations:  Auto mechanic, carpenter, jet pilot o Traditional feminine occupations:  Nurse, art teacher, social worker Communion - These beliefs suggest that women are more concerned with other people and social groups o Interdependent & feeling connected with others Agency - Suggests that men focus on the individual o Feelings on self-protection and self-assertion Research methods: Effect Size & Meta Analysis - Effect-size o Tells us the impact or importance of a variable to the overall observed effect o Can calculate effect size within an individual experiment o Estimated using statistic d:  d= Mm – Mf / s  Mm: average score for males  Mf: average score for females  s: average standard deviation of the male and female scores  +d: males score higher  -d: females score higher  do: no difference in scores o when effect size is SMALL:  huge overlap in the distributions of the scores of men and women  0.2 : too small to be noticeable in every day life  0.5 : moderate difference  0.8+: large difference, people are generally already aware of these differences o Estimate of effect side d is calculated as a ratio of difference between genders compared to individual variability within a gender - Meta-analysis o Researchers combine the individual results of difference experiments to calculates an estimate of how large an effect is across many different participants, samples, experimenters, methods and measures o When doing a meta-analysis we are trying to see if on average there is more variation between the genders than among individuals within a gender Summary of Meta-analysis and gender differences - Janet Hyde (2007) found that 78% of the effects reported were small (48%) or nonsignificant(30%) - Summary suggests that men and women are most different when it comes to physical attributes such as height and strength, some aspects of sexuality - Suggests men prefer realistic occupations more so than women; o Working with machines, equipment, and inanimate objects - Suggests women prefer people oriented occupations that involve managing and interacting with other people - No gender difference in preference for occupation which requires creative thought and intellectual effort, routine data oriented occupations or conventional occupations - No gender difference in general intelligence - Small difference in spatial visualization - Large difference in spatial perception of true vertical or horizontal and mental rotation o +d: men score greater - Mood disorders and depression are more frequent among women - Anti-social personality disorder narcissistic personality disorder and compulsive personality disorder occur more among men - Borderline personality disorder occur more among women - Substance , childhood and sexuality-man - Mood , panic , depression anorxia- woman - Empathy, emoion, anxiety, helping behaviour , selfesteem spatial Gender similarities & differences in the 5-factor model - Neuroticism shows the largest gender difference: women score higher - Women score slightly higher: conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness Aggression - Men are more physically aggressive than women - Men are Slightly more verbally aggressive than women - Men are more likely to resort to physical aggression - When provoked women are more like to resort to verbal aggression - Men more likely to respond aggressively to frustration Risk Taking - Men score higher on impulsive sensation seeking - Men are slightly more likely to engage in risky behaviors (like speeding) - Men showed a sharper increase in drinking and drug use from highschool to college than women - Women were more likely to smoke in college than men - After college use of drug and alcohol increased in women surpassing that of men Empathy - Women score higher in tender-mindedness o Suggest that women are indeed more empathetic - Women are better at reading body language and facial expression and recognizing faces - Women are better at expression emotions non-verbally - Women engage in more eye contact Emotions - Depends on cultural factors, situational influences, gender role pressures and the measures used rather than differences in the actual experience emotions - No difference in physiological experience of emotions - Gender difference in shame are inconsistent Anxiety - Women are more anxious o Keep in mind that this is based on self-report - No real gender difference in anxiety - Men are more physiologically reactive than women o Greater heart rate, skin, conductance, and breathing when anxious Helping Behavior - men engage in more helping behavio
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