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PSYB30-Chapter 3 Notes.docx

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Connie Boudens

Chapter 3: Personality Traits Practical Matters What’s Missing From the Five Factors?  Supernumerary Personality Inventory is used to measure additional factors outside the five factors, describing the physical characteristics, demography and unusual behaviour. Is Religiosity a Personality Trait?  Spiritual transcendence: the ability of individuals to “stand outside of their immediate sense of time and place to view life from a larger, more objective perspective.  The concept of spirituality goes beyond any particular religious tradition, and in fact, Piedmont, and his colleagues designed the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS) after first meeting with experts from various faiths including Buddhism, Hinduism, Quakerism, Lutheranism, Catholicism, and Judaism. The scale has three facets: Prayer Fulfillment, feeling of joy and contentedness from connection with the transcendent; Universality, seeing humanity as a single interrelated whole such that harming one harms all; and Connectedness, feeling belongingness to and social responsibility and gratitude for, others across generations and across social groups. Is Sexuality a Personality Trait?  Undergraduate students rated themselves on each of these 67 words along with an adjectival measure of the Big Five. When Schmitt and Buss factor- analyzed these responses they found 7 sexuality factors, referred to as the Sexy Seven: Sexual Attractiveness (e.g. sexy, stunning, attractive), Relationship Exclusivity (e.g. faithful, monogamous), Gender Orientation (e.g. feminine, masculine, womanly), Sexual Restraint (e.g. virginal), Erotophilic Disposition (e.g. obscene), Emotional Investment (e.g. loving, romantic) and Sexual Orientation. Indigenous Personality: Unique Personality Traits?  American samples, even if they adequately explain personality in another culture, it is possible that we may have missed personality traits that are unique to that culture. For example, consider a person who is polite, generous, responsible, respectful, and has a strong sense of honour. We can readily understand what this means, but can you think of a single word to describe these qualities? If you were Greek, you would immediately recognize this as philotimo.  Filial piety is a very desirable personality trait and is much more than obeying and honoring one’s parents. Disappointing a family member is like letting down all of your ancestors- and your future progeny. According to cultural tradition, young people must internalize this trait. Filial piety is not captured by the five-factor model alone; indigenous personality trait s are necessary to fully explain this construct in Chinese college students  Amae characterizes relationships between people of lower and higher status, such as bosses and workers, in addition to the relationship between parents and children. The Five Factors in Other Cultures 1) Questionnaire measures of the five-factor model reliably replicate across many cultures and languages. 2) Adjectival measures of the Big Five reveal variations of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness but not Openness in many different cultures. 3) Openness varies across cultures -Because the Openness factor does not consistently appear in other languages it may be that this factor, though it exists cross-culturally, is defined differently in ways unique to a specific culture. 4) In some cultures more than five factors are needed to fully describe personality. 5) We need more research on indigenous personality to truly see which aspects of personality are universal and which are unique to a culture. - -- Although McCrae and Costa claimed that indigenous traits, traits originating in another language and which are unique to a culture are “interpretable as characteristic adaptations within the Five Factor Theory” others counter that both questionnaire measures and adjectival measures may miss indigenous terms Personality Traits Cross-Culturally: Personality Traits in China  Cheung et al. developed the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) by using a sort of lexical approach by identifying descriptions of Chinese personality from literature, proverbs, surveys, and previous research. This led to the identification of 10 trait clusters, unique to the Chinese personality and not covered by Western personality inventories: Harmony (tolerance, contentment), Ren Qing (traditional relationship orientation emphasizing, give and take connectedness), Modernization (vs. traditionalism), Thrift (vs. extravagance), Ah-Q mentality (defensiveness; named for Ah-Q, a well-known fictional Chinese character depicted in a classical novel), Graciousness (courtesy, kindness, patience, vs. meanness), Veraciousness-Slickness (trustworthiness), Face ( reputation, social approval), Family Orientation, and Somatization (expression of distress via physical symptoms). When factor-analyzed four factor emerged: Dependability (responsibility, practical-mindedness, graciousness), Chinese Tradition (Harmony, Ren Qing, Face), Social Potency (leadership, adventurousness) and Individualism (Self-orientation, logical, Ah-Q mentality)  Ren Qing: An indigenous Chinese trait term that refers to a traditional relationship orientation emphasizing give and take and connectedness.  Ah-Q: An indigenous Chinese trait term that means defensiveness; named for Ah-Q, a well-known fictional Chinese character depicted in a classical novel.  Cheung et al. conducted a fellow-ip study in which they factor-analyzed responses to the CPAI and the Chinese NEO-PI-R together. They found six factors: five from the five-factor model, as one might expect, plus an indigenous personality factor they called Interpersonal Relatedness, made up of Harmony, Ren Qing, Ah-Q, and face.  Interpersonal Relatedness: An indigenous personality factor unique to the Chinese referring to instrumentality of relationships, propriety, avoidance of conflict, support of traditions, and compliance with norms. Includes
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