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Lecture 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

1 Lecture 2 LAST CLASS: Constructs variables we use to categorize the rules Correspondence rules Hypotheses Dependency is unhealthy implies two constructs, dependency and health and a relationship between them how to formalize and test Criteria that have been established we can use to judge theories. 7 widely accepted criteria (listed in order) Coherent logical, statements need to hang together, there needs to be internal consistency, theory should not contradict itself Testable give rise to hypotheses that are clearly falsifiable, scientists needs to verify propositions about world, theory should specify what we must look at in the world to prove theory as true or false Empirically valid consistent with data collected Comprehensive refers to scope, explanatory scope of a particular theory. Theories that explain more vs. less. In order to explain more, more constructs are needed complicated theory is not desirable Parsimonious to be simple and elegant, parsimonious and comprehensiveness are traded off against each other Useful (utility) prefer theory that generates solutions to human problems; socially useful theories that address real life problems (I.e. psychoanalysis and Behaviourism) Generative excite scientists and provoke them to engage in new research, prefer theory that challenges scientists Daryl Bem Publication on pre-cognition, thoughts and feelings that precede causes of thoughts and feelings (example of generative) Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis Introduced several new terms that are used regularly, altered the way we use the word dream, hysterical, egotistical, libido, unconscious, conflicted, etc Originally trained as a neurologist Theorized that there may be psychological factors responsible for symptoms such as blindness or pregnancy symptoms unconscious conflicts symptoms were undersurface manifestation that caused symptoms that could not be explained biologically Freud find ways of getting at the conflict, bringing them out into conscious light so that they could be resolved
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