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Lecture 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

PSYB30Lecture 3Part I Social Learning Innatism and Empiricism Story Simon LemogeEarly Behaviourism and Learning Culture 1 Jon B Watson Applied Pavlovian techniques to 9mo child to show complex emotional responsesfear could be learned through classical conditioning Loud noise is paired w ratthen just rat produces fear started being afraid of things similar to white rat 2 B F Skinner 19041990Extended Watsons behaviorism beyond the level of Pavlovian conditioning into the more complex arena of voluntary behaviorThorndikes Law of Effectthe effect produced by a behavior determines the behaviors future probability of occurrence cat and mazetrial and error 34 minsIntroduced the concepts of reinforcement punishment and shaping process of rewarding success approximation to a desired behaviorStrength of behaviorism was its reliance upon i observation ii experimentation and iii simplicity of explanationThe weakness of behaviorism was that it lost sight of the learner ie the person in the study of learned behavior Banduras Theory of Social LearningEmergent Properties Intentions have causal properties like billiardsTriadic Reciprocal Causation Person P Environment E Behavior B reciprocal we select themFortuitous Determinants in Causal Structures There is an element of chance in peoples lives stuff happens ie Bandura gave speech and some guy had to sit at a seat bc he was latemet love of his life and married shortly5 Fundamental Human Capabilities 1 Symbolizing Capabilities Ability to represent evensrelationships in symbolic form test possible solution symbolically in thought 2 Vicarious Capabilities Capacity for observational learning enabling them to expand knowledge and competencies through modeling and behaviour of others 3 Forethought Capability Capacity of fore throughability to bring anticipated outcomes to bear on current activities anticipation of reinforcement either directlyvicariously experienced 4 SelfRegulatory Capability Require substitution of internal regulation and direction of external sanctionselfregulation Sub functions of selfregulation Selfobservation judgmental processes selfreaction 5 SelfReflective Foundation of human agency expectancy of belief or behavioural competence to confront a challenge Sources Personalvicarious experiences of successfailure social support and encouragement emotional experiencesSummarySince the emergence of radical behaviorism theorists have challenged the primacy of classicalinstrumental
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