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Lecture 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

PSYB30 Lecture 2The Structure of Evolutionary TheoryVariationInheritanceSelectionDifferences in our design impact our reproductive successproperty of design can have effect ton rates of reproductionEvolutionary Processes 1 Natural Selection evolution of adaptive characteristic of survival benefits of those having them 2 Sexual Selection evolution of adaptive characteristics bc reproductive benefits bestowed on those having themIntrasexual Competitions ie stags antlers within a given sexIntersexual Selection ie peacocks plumage between sexesProducts of Evolutionary Process 1 Adaptations Evidence of Special DesignSpeciesTypical bone is white is NOT adaptive the property is a spandrel bc of Ca in themstrength and durability incident correlateadaptive form strength as organismsSuspiciously FunctionalCondensed Records of Ancestral Conditions shows how are species confronted past problems to produce current selvesAdaptation DOES NOT EQUAL Optimal DesignConstraints on Optimal Design 1 Time Lagshedgehog curls up into little ball when scared in historical environments but not cars Adaptation works only if present situation is similar to past situation 2 Local Optima example of climbing a mountain 3 Insufficient Variation The Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness EEA The ancestral conditions and selection pressures under which an adaptation evolved The human EEAthe Pleistocene Epoch 16 mya10000 ya
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