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The Person - Chp 3 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

PSYB30 Personality - Chapter 3 Notes Social Learning and Culture For much of the 20th century, mainstream American psychology tended to downplay inherent or biologically ingrained differences between people and emphasized instead the power of social environments to shape human behavior Skinner argued that human behavior and peoples lives are primarily the products of social learning in culture Behaviorism and Social-Learning Theory - American Environmentalism: The Behaviorist Tradition Behaviorism is a brand of psychology that explores the ways in which observable behavior is learned and shaped by the environment B.F. Skinner was very popular in this aspect of psychology For the newborn, John Locke, believed that the mind is like a blank slate, or clean piece of paper Locke also believed that over time, experiences write upon the slate, giving the mind its characteristic content Locke also argued that the environment shapes the person - that everyone is bored psychologically equal and personality was made by the environment According to behaviorists, our environments teach us to be who we are; we are what we learn to be They also believed that the motivation to learn was to keep order and obtain pleasure and avoid pain Utilitarianism put forth the idea that the good society should make for the greatest happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of people www.notesolution.comPSYB30 Personality - Chapter 3 Notes Utilitarians argued that this could be accomplished if societies were structured in a more egalitarian fashion Behaviorism in all its different forms was steeped in a utilitarian ideology According to most utilitarians, a great deal of learning occurs through the association of actions with either positive (pleasurable) or negative (painful) events The doctrine of associationism claims that various objects and ideas that are contiguous in time or space come to be connected or associated Classical conditioning represents one such form of simple learning ( the tone - conditioned stimulus and the meat - unconditioned stimulus have become associated with each other. In higher-order conditioning the conditioned stimuli which have obtained their eliciting power through associations with unconditioned stimuli come to be associated with other neutral stimuli, which themselves become conditioned stimuli by virtue of the association ie) a young man may develop an aversion to a particular brand of womens perfume because that was the perfume his mother wore the summer he broke up with his girlfriend higher-order conditioning could also produce emotionally positive associations ie) if a young mans sister wore the perfume on the day he found out that he had been named his high schools outstanding student classical conditioning is a low-level form of learning whereby two stimuli become associated because they appear together at the same time Phobias are intense fear responses to particular stimuli - and behavior therapists sometimes apply principles of classical conditioning to help patients with phobias A second form of learning is instrumental conditioning or operant conditioning In operant conditioning, behavior is modified by its consequences
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