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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 (2012)

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University of Toronto Scarborough

PSYB#) – LECTURE 8 -motives are why we act the way we do Human Social Motivation Legacy of David C. McClelland -father of human social motivation -defined how people think about human motivation -needs and motives are interchangeable in his view -McCleellands Definition of a Motvie/Need:, A Recurrent preferences or readiness for a particular quality of experience, which energizes, directs, and selects behaviour in certain situations -he doesn’t mean needs that we all need equaly (like need to water) -he looked at needs similar to how we would need chocolate, some people live without it, some people really want it. -a motive or need distinguishes a need from one person to another -it orients us to particular kinds of situations -its like a lens or a filter that makes you think in the perspective of the motive/need -directs us to perform certain ebahviours that lead us to our desires Motive IS NOT EQUAL TO conscieous intention (some of the most important motives are unconsicoue also) -so he often talks about implicit mtoives – motives we cannot self report on (outside out conscious mind) -motives IS NOT EQUAL TO traits: traits are patterns in HOW we think. Motives are WHY act the way we do. The Thematic Appreception Test (TAT) - since McClelland said that our motivatiosn can often be subconcisous, how do you test it if people arnt able to tell you about it? -To solve this, he used the TAT test –developed by Murray -it’s a standardized test that has a number of pictures, that are always presented in the same order-participants are told to write a story about what is happening in the scene, what obstacles, what are they to achieve, who are the people -the pictures are abstract, -TAT hypothesis: in the absence of a set stimuli (when its ambiguous) you reply on your own history/ issues/ fears/ hopes that the picture lacks. -the picture represents an opportunity for a subject to poject their motives into the characters depicted in the scene -this is why it is called a projective test- project their own intrapsychic issues onto the test -we now need a way to read the story and come to the same conclusion of the story as another researcher -this standardized score must have a set of rules to follow to get it Eg. looking at motivation for achievement. So you need to havea scoring motivation system o look for acievment related imagery. So you want to create an arousal condition (when achievement motivation is raised) and also a neutral condition (when it is not siginificantly high). So now you take participants and make them take cognitive tests and they are told it has to do with their leadership intelligence. So these participants are not motivated to achieve on the test they will be taking. Their stories in this arousal condition may have themes or characters that only are present in this condition. Then give them the TAT cards. Then the other students are given test and told they don’t have any special results they show. So they are not motivated, and they are not motivated. There are also some themes that will show up least often compared to this condition. This then becomes the rubric. Criticism of the TAT th -were used a lot in the 20 century clinically (30-60s) -but now they are thought to have poor reliability- the stories you write and images you see in the first card you see are not highly correlated to all the cards -poor criterion validity- does it predict what its supposed to predict -poor convergent validity – when you take TAT measure eof a maotive and self report of the same motive, they are often not very correlated ot eachother. Since implicit motives are outside of our conscious, we shouldn’t be able to self report them,. But, why since self report is so good, the TAT is criticised for not being as good. Achievement Motivation -need for achievement got abbreviated to n Ach-n Ach (achievement motivation): recurrent concerns with doing things better and with surpassing standards of excellence -trying to make things that work work even better -building a better mouse trap -may not be doing it consciously, but may be a lens that you see the world through The n Ach Scoing system -college studnets composed TAT stories after having 1 completed a battery of cognitive tasks and then been told: -their perfiormace would show intelignce or leadership (arousal) -their perform would not indicate anything specific (neutral) Sample n Ach Scoring Category -acievement Imagery – sample fo the imagery that is used to give a score for this -a character wants to perform better either by: -being involved in long-term achievement project -meeting an internal standard of excellence -outperforming someone else -doing something unique n Ach and Entrepreneurship -what does the need for achievement then predict -there are individual level correlates and also societal level correlates, but we are just talking about individual level correlates for today -it is related to entrepreneurialism -high n-Ach idiv are drawn to careers in business, and have success in business (up to a point) Eg. McClelland and Boyatsis: Did a study: looked at managers at time they were highered. Given a TAT and achievement was highered. Then those highest in n-Ach were more quickly promoted to the 3 level of the compant in 16 years, but they were not promoted to Level 4 (manager level)-when the level 4 came, you are no longer directly managing task infornt of you, but then they have to deligate. But people in n-Ach they do not want to deligate, so the motivation decreases. Eg. President Carter, had a high level of achievement. Before he was president he was very good, but then when he was president he was concerned with little things like knowing the name of everyone who worked for him. So he was not able to deligate well. The Needs for Power and Intimacy -also pioneered by McClelland -n Pow: recurrent concerns with having impact, control, or influence on another person, a group, or the whole world. -not just good impact, just having impact -eg. researchers had subjects play horse shoe. They were looking at the how far people would stand from the stake in the group (the think you have to get the horse shoe on) and if this distance is related to motivation. They found people with high achievement motivation stood at place at optimum level of challenge, but they didn’t want to hinder themselves. -power motivated people stood as far away as possible, didn’t allow thme selves a high change, but if they did good everyone would think they are very talented. They are influences by attention. They want positive admiration, but they will take negative attention over nothing. Sample n Pow Scoring Category -the power motive is expressed through power relevant imagery -what research looks for in the TAT for scoring of power -power imagery: a character in the story wants to have impact or influence by: -controlling, taking strong forceful actions -giving unsolicited help or advice to others (no one asked for help) -attempting to impress, persuade, or prove a point Need for power predicts: 1. Career selection: drawn to some carrers over others. Eg. politics, the church (pastor
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