Lecture 9 The self and social cognition
Approaches to Psychology
-humanism is a movement (an ideology)
-an optimistic view of the person as inherently good
-views the human being as a rational, purposeful, and autonomous, capable of creativity and
experiencing deep and profound insights into reality
-we are capable of self-regulation, and also great accomplishment
-the first movement that defined the 20 century: psychoanalysis (freud), behaviourism (learning
Humanism is the 3rd-demarkated from the others by its consistently optimistic view of human nature
-it is a viable viewpoint on human nature that is distinctive from both other movements
-he started client centered psychology
the organism has but one basic tendency and striving to actualize, maintain, and enhance the
-there is one motive in all of us to actualize (relaize) the potential within them
-we have a true self the person we are supposed ot become and our responsibility is to actualize this
-much of our pathology and misery is the failure to recognize this
-all of us come with a mechanism that ensures that our choices gratifies our choices are right
-not assuming there is a voice in our head, he is saying there is a reaction we have to all of our choices,
and our reactions tell us viscerally (in our gut) if they are correct
-eg. your mind reacts to your choices like the body knows when we feed it junk food
He called the system: Organism Valuing Process (OVP): its different than a valuing system. Humans have a fundamental
capacity to perceive the growth relevant implications of their expriences and choices
Fully Functioning Person
-he saw all of us to be on the road to become fully functioning people
-if we follow the OVP then we will relaize our potential (optimally functioning person)
-he said all fully functioning people share some common attributes:
-Openness to Experience: not like the big 5. Free of the need to respond defensively. And dont distort
the world internally or external reality. They can listen attentivaly and without anxiety to whats going on
inside and outside their body. They are open to introceptive and extroceptive experiences.
-Existential Living: they can live in present moment without being clouded by the past or the future.
They are able to be spontaneous and are free of need to address past and future.
-Self-Trust: free to do what feels right. They trust their OVP and feel comfortable listening and trust it to
gratify them with their needs.
On Becoming a person
-all of us are on the road to becoming fully functioning people
-we all face bumps along the way
-what are the factors that keep us on tract and also derail us:
-positive regard: all people want to receive love and acceptance from parents and significant others,
authority. Beign told by them that you are worthy facilitates our actualizing our true self. It is easier if
you believe that true self will be loved by people. Most of us learn however that there are conditions
attached to this.
Conditions of worth: those conditions that we apply to people that determine whether or not they
receive love and approval. Receive love depending on if we perform a behaviour that is preferred. Often
we tend to follow these rules, and this can prevent us from becoming the person we are to be.
Conditional positive regard: love and approval is only earned when certain conditions are met. We learn
and internalize them and they ALTER THE COURSE OF OUR DEVELOPMENT
. Eg. young boy determes hes Gay but represses this side of him in order to ensure he can receive the
conditional positive regard if he choses the right romantic partners.
Client Centered Therapy
-rogers techonology to help clients to return back to path to becoming fully functioning person-he wanted to help them no longer repress aspects of peoples true self become of the conditional
positive regard they wanted to recieve
-was developed to alleviate the these
Unconditional positive regard: positive regard you provide is nbot condition. Have to be accepting to
their values without any reservation or any condition. Concellor also have to be:
Empathic understanding: you need to undwerstand the world as the client precieves it.
Your own subjective experience is something only you can know.
Reflection: an interpersonal behaviour in which you accurately express the clients attitudes or feeling
about a matter. Something they often dont know, but you help them to realize it.
-when you reflect what they cannot see, they then know they can actualize without any judgement.
They can see themselves fully, clearly and objectively. And they no longer repress those elements and
can actualize them.
-he created the hierarchy of psychological needs
-he thought we have need, and