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Psychology (7,782)
PSYB30H3 (526)


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Marc A Fournier

Chapter 2The Role of ParadigmsParadigm a set of basic assumptions a general perspective that defines how to conceptualize and study a subject how to gather and interpret relevant data even how to think about a particular subjectParadigms are an intrinsic part of a science serving the vital function of indicating the rules to be followeda paradigm injects inevitable biases into the definition and collection of data and may also affect the interpretation of facts1Biological ParadigmBiological paradigm of abnormal behaviour is a continuation of the somatogenic hypothesisThis perspective holds that mental disorders are caused by aberrant biological processesAka medical model or diseases modelFor a time the germ theory was the paradigm of medicine but it could not account for all diseases ex Heart disease An extreme example of the biological paradigms influence is Halls use of gynecological procedures to treat insanity in women from BC removal of ovarian cysts or the entire ovaries was a treatment for melancholia mania and delusions ex Mrs D delusions that her husband was trying to poison herThose working with the biological paradigm assume that answers to puzzles of psychopathology will be found within the bodyaBehaviour GeneticsGenes carriers of the genetic information DNA passed form parents to childBehaviour genetics is the study of individual differences in behaviour that are attributable in part to differences in genetic makeupGenotype total genetic makeup of an individual consisting of inherited genes unobservable Phenotype is the totality of hisher observable behavioural characteristics such as level of anxietyPhenotype changes over time and is viewed as the product of an interaction between the genotype and the environmentVarious clinical syndromes are disorders of the phenotype not of the genotypea predisposition also known as diathesis may be inherited but not the disorder itselfStudy of behaviour genetics has relied on four basic methods to uncover whether predisposition for psychopathology is inheritediFamily Method can be used to study a genetic predisposition among members of a family because the average number of genes shared by two blood relatives is known people who share 50 of their genes with a given individual are called firstdegree relatives of that person niecesnephews share 25 ofthe starting point is the collection of a sample of individuals who bear the diagnosis in question these people are referred to as index cases or probandsiiTwin Method Both Monozygotic twins and Dizygotic Twins are compared twin studies begin with diagnosed cases and then search for the presence of the disorder in the other twin when the twins are similar diagnostically they are said to be concordant concordance for the disorder should be greater in MZ pairs than in DZ pairs thereby the characteristic being studied is said to be heritable the ability to offer a genetic interpretation of data from twin studies hinges on what is called the equal environment assumption which states that the environmental factors that are partial causes of concordance are equally influential for MZ pairs and DZ pairs ie equal number of stressors
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