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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Week 2 Human Evolution: Attachment system one hypothesized evolved psychological adaptation that connects infants to caregivers and later on adults to their romantic partners. Rank System: The idea that there is an evolved psychological apparatus to deal with social hierarchy Evolutionary Process Traces itself to the work of Charles Darwin. Born in 1809 in England. Degree in 1831 age 22. 1st job was w/o pay as a naturalist on the HMS Beetle mapping the west and east coast of South America. Groundwork for evolutionary theory was laid down b/w the ages of 23-27. Year 1859 - Age 50 when origin of species is published. Year 1871 Descent of Man sequel is written. 1882 died and is buried in west minister abbey. Darwinian evolutionary theory is one of the 3 greatest forces that has helped change the ways humans see themselves in the world. No one has changed the way we think of ourselves as biological agents than Charles Darwin. Personality domain in psych life science Evolution is the organizing frame work for life sciences. Any theory of personality must be consistent with the evolutionary theory if it is to be correct. 3 basic idea as to where humans come from: 1. Evolution; 2. Creationism the idea that some divine agent created human life; 3. Seating theory Aliens came and planted humans in the Earth. Evolution theory is the only scientifically grounded theory that is capable of counting for the variety of fxn design and the fxnality of design that we see in living things and it is the only scientific theory that is capable of counting all the paleontological/archeological data. The foundation of classical evolutionary theory guides contempory evolutionary theory and evolutionary psych. There are 3 basic elements to the evolutionary process: 1. Variation; 2. Inheritance; 3. Selection Variation: the idea that we differ in our design features. We are diff physically and psychologically; there is variation in design. Some of these design features are inheritable they will be passed on to a certain extent to ones progeny. Some of these design features have a basis in our genesis and therefore we pass it along to our progeny. Selection: Design features will to a greater/lesser extent CAN INFLUENCE OUR CAPACITIES TO SURVIVE AND REPRODUCE. And if the design feature in question is inheritable and it contributes to our survival and reproductive success then it stands to reason that that trait will appear with increasing freq across generation. So those traits that are heritable and that (+)vely impact survival and reproduction get passed on at greater rates than do alternative design features, such that they propagate within features, and appear in increasing freq. If the pressures remain same/if the environ challenges remain the same over a long period of time, those traits that equip organisms to survive and reproduce best will become so freq in the population that they will become typical of the species so virtually all members of the species will have the traits in question these are characterized as adaptations. Evolutionary Process: Natural Selection is one of two evolutionary processes that Darwin developed. It is the evolution of adaptive characteristics b/c of the survival benefits bestowed on those having them. Ie) Products of a natural selection long neck of a giraffe giraffes at an earlier stage in the evolution of their species varied more dramatically in the lengths of their necks. Those giraffes that had the longer necks were better equipped to reach the food at the very top of the trees from which they derived their nourishment. So the giraffes with the longest necks that had the greatest reach and ability to acquire food and nourishment they as a result survived and reproduced more successfully than those giraffes that had a smaller/shorter neck. So with each successful generation those giraffes with shorter necks survived and reproduced less successfully and neck length has a genetic basis and every generation that followed saw a depiction of the species as one with an increasing freq of very long necks. It happened over a very long time such that it is now characteristic of the species. It is now a very fxnal design feature for the giraffes. Key elements: the design feature (trait) in question is contributing to the survival of the organism. There are attributes and traits that some species appear to have, they seem to be fxnal and at the very least same are species typical, but they seem to be a fly in the face. Ex: brilliant plumage of the peacock. The brilliant plumage would make it vulnerable to predation? There must be an alternative complementary evolutionary process. This is sexual selection. Sexual selection is the evolution of adaptive characteristics b/c of the reproductive benefits bestowed on those having it. Some characteristics evolve not b/c they contribute to survival but b/c they contribute for reproductive success and may even be selective for despite of the fact that they impact survival negatively. Some traits evolve the members of a species to survive and other traits evolve because they allow member of a species to reproduce. 2 subsidiary sexual selection processes 1. intrasexual competition; 2. Intersexual selection Intrasexual competition same sex competition. Very frequently members of the same sex competing with each other in order to have priority of access to members of the other sex. Quite frequently it is the males that are in competition with the females. Those traits/attributes/design features that enable one to compete successfully against ones own sex (ie males against males) will www.notesolution.comtherefore ensure that that male reproduces more successfully. If the trait/attribute has a heritable feature then its offspring will have that feature too. Ex: large heavy deadly antlers of the male deer. Male deer (stags) sometimes compete against other male deer to compete for female deer (does). The larger your armour the better equipped you are to fight, the better equipped you are to fight the more chances of securing mates; Given that the antlers have a genetic basis the more successful males (largest antlers) pass them onto their male offspring. There is a cost to having these heavy antlers. Having the heavy antlers (advantages) might outweigh the costs it causes given their prevalence in the deer population. Intersexual selection: Often it is the males who are competing against each other for access to the females. Females are in the position to choose their mate. If the female population of a given species has some consensus about whats desirable in the males of a species, then those males that have the trait that is desirable will be chosen as mates more often given that those attributed males get chosen more often, they reproduce more often and produce more offspring. Ex: the more brilliant the plumage is, the more likely it is to secure a mate, and therefore the more likely it is to pass the plumage off to his offspring. This process has occurred long enough for all the male population of the peacock to have the plumage. There are these evolutionary processes (natural selection processes, sexual selection processes, intrasexual competition, intersexual selection etc.
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