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Psyb30 Lec 1.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Psyb30 Lec 1 Origin theories Scientific theory - a set of interrelated statements used to desvrbe observations in the world. Begin by casual observations goal is to make sense of the observations. 1. The building block of the theory is a CONSTRUCT. (concept or idea) 2. Constructs are connnected to each other through CORRESPONDENCE RULES The expected relationships between 2 or more constructs 3. Should lead us to a TESTABLE PREDICTION (HYPOTHESIS) We have to be able to come up with a testable hypothesis, falsifyable. We also can formalize an informal theory. (eg. Dependency is Unhealthy) 1. Coherent(logical) . Empirical Verfication (Testable) . Empirically Valid 2. Comprehensiveness (the scope of the theory) . Parsimony (simplicity, elegance) - usually these 2 are invertedly correlated. 3. Useful (how useful is the theory) & Generativity (vibrant, generates more new studies). Sigmund Freud. 1. Stage theory of psychosexual (developmental). Libido – any life sustaining need satisfying or pleasure oriented urge. - motivational force towards life satisfying, need gratifying and pleasure. - Purest sense – life sustaining energy. Eros – same as libido Thanatos – any urge to destroy or harm or aggress. Libidinal Organization – Has a biological function, organized around different areas of the body known as erogenous zones. Erogenous zones – bodily source of pleasure around which the libido is organized. 1. Oral Stage – birth to 18 months, primarily concerned around issues of trust. (ID) 2. Anal Stage – 1.5 -3 years, retaining urges when appropriate produces maternal/paternal approval, self-regulation. (EGO) 3. Phallic Stage (genital)– 3 – 3 years, Oedipus & Electra complexes. (SUPEREGO) 4. Latency Stage 6 – puberty. Libido gets repressed. 5. Genital Stage Puberty onwards. Libido is linked to reproductive goals. ID – the source of all drives and urges reservoir that holds the libido. - the pleasure principle – urge for gratification and satisfa
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