Psyb30 Lec 1
Scientific theory - a set of interrelated statements used to desvrbe observations in
Begin by casual observations goal is to make sense of the observations.
1. The building block of the theory is a CONSTRUCT. (concept or idea)
2. Constructs are connnected to each other through CORRESPONDENCE RULES
The expected relationships between 2 or more constructs
3. Should lead us to a TESTABLE PREDICTION (HYPOTHESIS)
We have to be able to come up with a testable hypothesis, falsifyable.
We also can formalize an informal theory. (eg. Dependency is Unhealthy)
1. Coherent(logical) . Empirical Verfication (Testable) . Empirically Valid
2. Comprehensiveness (the scope of the theory) . Parsimony (simplicity, elegance)
- usually these 2 are invertedly correlated.
3. Useful (how useful is the theory) & Generativity (vibrant, generates more new
1. Stage theory of psychosexual (developmental).
Libido – any life sustaining need satisfying or pleasure oriented urge.
- motivational force towards life satisfying, need gratifying and
- Purest sense – life sustaining energy.
Eros – same as libido
Thanatos – any urge to destroy or harm or aggress.
Libidinal Organization – Has a biological function, organized around different areas
of the body known as erogenous zones.
Erogenous zones – bodily source of pleasure around which the libido is organized.
1. Oral Stage – birth to 18 months, primarily concerned around issues of trust.
2. Anal Stage – 1.5 -3 years, retaining urges when appropriate produces
maternal/paternal approval, self-regulation. (EGO)
3. Phallic Stage (genital)– 3 – 3 years, Oedipus & Electra complexes.
4. Latency Stage 6 – puberty. Libido gets repressed.
5. Genital Stage Puberty onwards. Libido is linked to reproductive goals.
ID – the source of all drives and urges reservoir that holds the libido.
- the pleasure principle – urge for gratification and satisfa