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Lec 10 Life Span Development.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Lec 10 Life Span Development Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development The Epigenetic Principle – personality unfolds across a sequence of predetermined developmental stages. Each stage provides us with a task/crisis to address, though it does not guarantee that it will be resolved. Each stage provides a pair of contrasts. And we have to strike the right balance between each contrast. Eg trust vs mistrust. Development cannot be hurried and cannot be stalled. It is not up to us. In passing each stage we obtain a Psychosocial virtue/strength. Failing which, we cultivate an excess of a strength or a deficit, which is both undesirable. When there is an excess of a given strengh – Maladaptation When there is a deficit – Malignancy Triple Bookkeeping 1. The body/libido (unconscious) 2. The ego – conscious understanding of the world 3. Family/society – Our developmental history, interactions with our surroundings. Stage 1 – Infancy (0-1 years) (Oral Stage) Issue: Trust vs Mistrust (how can I be secure?) Maladaptation: Sensory Distortion – too much trust, gullible Malignancy: Withdrawl (no trust) Virtue: Hope Stage 2 – Toddlerhood (2-3) (Anal Stage) Issue: Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt Maladaptation: Impulsivity (unable to restrain ourselves/too willfull) Malignancy: Compulsion (Regression into self doubt/no will) Vitrue: Will (Determination/ Self efficacy) Stage 3 – Preschool Child (3-6) (Phallic) Issue: Initiative vs Guilt Maladaptation: Ruthfulness (Initiation without restraint/engage too much with the world) Malignancy: Inhibition (better safe than sorry/never venturing out etc) Virtue: Purpose Stage 4 – School-Age Childhood (7-12) Assuming roles in society (Latency) Issue: Industry vs Inferiority Maladaptation: Narrow Virtuosity (too much focus on cultivation adult skills/undertaking adult roles when they are not ready) Malignancy: Inertia (Aviodance of learning adult relevant roles) Virtue: Competence Stage 5 – Adolescence (13-18) Imagining what if/future Issue: Identity vs Role Confusion (how will I be part of society?) Maladaptation: Fanaticism (intolerance for others/racial, religious etc) Malignanxy: Repudiation (refusal to take on the challenge of identity. We don’t take on the question of who will I be?) Virtue: Fidelity (loyalty) Stage 6 – Young Adulthood (20s) Issue: Intimacy vs Isolation Maladaptation: Promiscuity (not necessarily sex) (tendency to become too intimate too freely too easily and superficially)
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