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Lecture 18

Lecture 18 - notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Lecture 18 The context and content of the life-story is more than just the content and context of ones traits and motives. Psychotherapy can be viewed as one way of systematically revising ones own life-story, and it may contribute towards making a more coherent life story. We can understand much of what goes on, from a theoretical point of view, during psychotherapy, from 3 particular frameworkscategoriesclassifications of psychotherapy th that dominated during the 20 century: Psychodynamic Therapies talk about the conflicts in their patients as the sources for symptoms of their patients (conflict between the ID and the ego, between the ego and the super-ego), so that the psychodynamic patient comes to therapy with a whole variety of potentially underlying conflicts. These conflicts produce anxieties, and it is the nature of the psyche to respond to these anxieties by virtue of (unconscious) defence mechanisms (repress, deny, project, sublimate etc.) and when these defences fail, the patients present symptoms. In this case however, the symptom itself represents an underlying conflict. The goal, as a psychodynamic therapist, is to serve as a blank canvas, onto which the patient can project all of their motivational unconscious issues (Transference). The therapist provides an interpretation of that projection (Interpretation), and this produces some insight into the conflict heshe has (Insight). The insight however is distressing, and so it leads to resistance from the patient (Resistance), and then were back to transference again. Its a cyclic movement, with the notion that with repeated opportunities to experience insight, the patient will be able to resolve their issues. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapies (CBT) grows out of the modern learning traditions (associative and operand learning theories). The notion is that antecedent events illicit behaviours (overtobservable or covertunobservable like thoughts), These behaviours have consequences, and whether they are rewarding or punishing, you will be more or less likely to engage in that behaviour in the future. The CBT Therapist employs cognitive restructuring techniques & behavioural experiments. An example of a behavioural experiment: one of the things a socially anxious patient will do, is avoid situations that make himher anxious in the first place. Avoidance is a very powerful behaviour, because it produces a very powerful consequence relief, which is very rewarding. The problem with it is that it often keeps the patient away from experiences that teach himher that there isnt so much to be afraid of after all. So one of the things a CBT therapist will do is to make the patient test hisher beliefs about what will happen under various circumstances. This makes the patients test the maladaptive beliefs about how the world works. HumanisticExistential Therapies Rogerian therapy based on conditions of worth that we all learn, the rules by which we have to live in order to receive love and
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