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cumulative detailed notes ch7-ch12

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Week 7 Goals & Strivings st ****re-listen to the on line lecture Needed for the 1 half of lecture ************* Not in midterm Wednesday class is canceled. No office hour on Friday Week 7 in Perspective The Origin TheoriesEvolution & Socialization Week 1. Introduction Week 2. Human Evolution Week 3. Gender, Society, & Culture Level I. Personality Traits / Dispositions Week 4. History & Controversy of Trait Concepts Week 5. Contemporary Trait Taxonomies Week 6. Heritability & Continuity Level II. Characteristic Adaptations Week 7. Goals & Strivings Week 8. The Self & Social Cognition Week 9. Stages of Life-Span Development Level III. Integrative Life Stories Week 10. Life Scripts & Life Stories Week 11. Myth & Narrative Week 12. Conclusion Overview of Week 7 Lecture The Legacy of David C. McClelland z The Needs for Power & Intimacy Trait x Motive Interactions Introduction to Social Motivation McClellands Definition of a Motive/Need: A recurrent preference or readiness for a particular quality of experience, which energizes, directs, and selects behavior in certain situations Motive Conscious Intention Some motive are known to us, and some motive we have access to. We can look inside of ourselves and find something and go and pursuit it; Untold motive: Most of the motive are not conscious intension Motive Trait Trait refers to the questions of what like what feelings Motivation: refers to the questions of why? The motive under the behaviour; what is the motive underline the behaviour. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): psychology rely on the self-report data, in other words, it is about what people tells. TAT has very clever strategy behind that. Participants are required to write a story based on the same picture. The picture itself does not tell you what is the story and it is ambigious, the stradegy is whatever you see and whatever you pull out from the car in the picture, it is not about the picture, but it is about you. When face an ambigious thing, but you have to pull out the story on it, so that you have to pull out the story of yourselves. The characters and the story you create will reflect your own idea. So it is projective test. Subjects compose stories in response to a series of ambiguous picture cues Story content reveals the underlying needs, conflicts, and complexes that subjects project onto the picture TAT = projective test Developing a TAT Scoring System: begin with a rough theory or a hypothesis, the idea is we can bring some subjects in, which could temporary rate the achievements. The motive about the achievement matters. One group was told their test was related to their personal development and intelligent but another group is not told so. First, determine what themes distinguish the stories written under motive arousal conditions from those written under neutral testing conditions. Use several motive arousal conditions as part of this process. Then, use those themes as part of a scoring system to assess the motivation of individuals. Assume that those individuals who show more frequent thematic imagery have a higher baseline level for that specific motive. Criticisms of the TAT Poor reliability Poor criterion validity Poor convergent validity with questionnaire measures of motives, which demonstrate greater reliability and criterion validity Achievement Motivation n Ach Defined: Recurrent concerns with doing things better and with surpassing standards of excellence Building a better mousetrap Sample n Ach Scoring Category Achievement Imagery a character in the story wants to perform better either by: Being involved in a long-term achievement project Meeting an internal standard of excellence Outperforming someone else Doing something unique n Ach & Entrepreneurship High-n Ach individuals are drawn to careers in business, and have success in business (up to a point) e.g., McClelland & Boyatsis (1982): High n Ach in managers at their time of entry into AT&T predicted promotion to Level 3 after 16 years, but not to Level 4 (manager-level) Power Motivation n Pow Defined: Recurrent concerns with having impact, control, or influence on another person, a group of persons, or the world at large; it is about the preference to have influence. Not negative or positive, but just any influence on others or attentions from others. These people go to journalist, psychologist, psychiatrist, or politics. No press is bad press Sample n Pow Scoring Category Power Imagery a character in the story wants to have impact or influence by: Controlling others Taking strong, forceful actions Giving unsolicited help or advice to others Attempting to impress, persuade, or prove a point n Pow & Leadership Winter (1987) coded the thematic imagery of the inaugural addresses of U.S. Presidents from Washington (1789) to Reagan (1981) Found that n Pow predicted: War Entry, r = .52, p < .01 Great Decisions Cited, r = .51, p < .01 Scholarly Judgments of Greatness, r = .40, p < .05 Affiliation/Intimacy Motivation ===related to friendship n Aff Defined: o Recurrent concerns with establishing, maintaining, or restoring a positive affective relationship with another person or group of persons o To reformulate the definition that the participants had n Int Defined: o Recurrent concerns with experiencing warmth and closeness in personal relationships o All you need is love Sample n Aff Scoring Category o Affiliation Imagery a character in the story wants to establish, maintain, or restore friendly relationships by: the more, the higher score Expressing, warm, positive, or intimate feelings Expressing sadness about separation Affiliative, companionate activities Nurturant acts: taking care of each other, sharing, a n Int & Friendship o McAdams et al. (1984) invited 105 college students to write TAT stories and describe 10 friendship episodes during the previous two weeks POWER INTIMACY * Large Group Interaction * .21 * -.10 Dyadic Interaction -.23 .20 Assertive Role .43*** -.04 Listening Role -.15 .43*** *** Self-Disclosure -.16 .49 Traits & Motives Winter, John, Stewart, et al. (1998): Motives represent fundamental goals or desires; motive is the thing that push us to behave; to truly predict someones behaviour, we need to Traits represent stylistic consistencies in behavior Traits channel the expression of motives i.e., goal-directed behaviors in ways that are consistent with these mechanisms The Channeling Hypothesis Traits & social motives interact in the prediction of behavior and life outcomes The extent to which a social motive (affiliation) predicts behavior or life outcomes varies across levels of a trait (introverted vs. extraverted) Extravert and introverted people should be different. Both of them want to maintain the relationship. Behavior = T + M + T x M The Samples The Mills Sample (CA) Sample of women from the graduating classes of 1958 and 1960 At age 21, they completed the TAT At age 43, they completed the
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