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Lecture 6

Developmental Psych Lecture 6.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

Developmental Psych Lecture 6  Piaget o Tested children on questions  Realized children made consistent errors, and became interested in these errors instead of the correct answers they gave  Wanted to explore the nature of how children thought, and how they reasoned about things (probing) o Cognitive equilibrium= intellectual balance o Saw children as constructivists- constructing knowledge for themselves, taking control of how they see the world- constructing their own reality  Their constructions varied based on the knowledge provided to them in life o Imbalance between mode of thinking and environment o The things that children are acting on or changing are called schemas- pattern on thought or action, similar to a concept or strategy; there are a number of different types of schema that related to the type of behavior involved  Behavioral schema- children are limited to the sensorimotor behavior and what they can understand  Symbolic schema- 2 year of life, can represent objects mentally and use symbols and represent behavior  Operational schema- child can form mental activities they can do instead of actually doing them  i.e. 8 year old can know when seeing a flat ball of clay is equal to the amount of clay when its rolled up into a ball  enable the child to think logically and reason about things  Assimilation o i.e. child knows a schema for dog; when they see a horse they call it a dog  Stage theory o The way the child knows world at one stage is totally different from how they understand at another stage o Stages occur in a given specific unchanging order- no skipping of stages – the timing of stages can be altered however  Indicates a strong biological component- because the environment you cant change the order but can change the age that you go through the stage  Piaget’s well known hiding tasks o Means-ends sequences- child is going through certain means to get to an end  Child reaches out, moves cover to retrieve a toy  Foundation for all problem solving o The A-not B error  Probably one of the most researched developmental study  Two hiding positions and hide a toy in front of a child- child reaches out and recovers you from hiding place (the A position)  Now, take the same toy and put it in the B location- child reaches out and looks for it in B- they are not successful at retrieving it  This curves because the child doesn’t have a complete independent object remembrance..  Believe that the object exists because they’ve reached out and searched for it in the A hole  Hidden displacement- put object in A but hide A and put it in B- children doesn’t see
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