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Physical Growth Development.pdf

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Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 Physical Growth – Lecture -05  Physical growth & motor development go together  Body’s physical growth continuously and drastically until first 2 decades of life until adulthood hits  Body dimension changes as well o Infants – have big head and small body  head is ¼ of total body length but as adult it decreases w/ head being 1/7 th of body length  In puberty there are dramatic changes to physical growth & have psychological affects as well o For rats puberty after 1-2 years of life o Apes – its takes about aprrox. 7 years  This extension b/w birth and timing of puberty is associate w/ increase prenatal growth in primates  especially with human o This increase means there is longer time for young to get social and cultural acquisition  Time of infancy – there is rapid gain in height and weight but slows down after & starts again in adolescence Growth Curve  Distal Growth Curve – plots the growth of particular body dimension each year & can use it determine facts about physical growth & prediction - plot by sex  could see a sex differences: - girls achieve about 50% of their adult height by 1 ¾ years old vs. boys do around 2 years of age - infancy – there weight and height are similar - Age 11 – see girls shooting past boys in height but this is short lived – because around age 14 boys surpass girls  Velocity Curve – plots absolute growth at yearly intervals & could better see timing of growth spurts than distance curve -Again see the sex difference w/ girls gaining increase in height couple years before boys: -girls around 11-12 years old vs. boys 14 years of age but boys continue to grow after this & surpass girls  Growth Curves for Body Organs – can go beyond body dimension & can measure the growth or internal organs  velocity curve for body organ o Plotted in terms of percent of adult size & can see variety of pattern of growth for different organs 175 General Genital h - Brian & Skull mature quickly  around 8-10 yrs of t 150 Brain and Head r Lymphoid life reaches adult size G a 125 a - Genital – slow growth up until 12/13 years t (puberty) & see growth spurt then o 100 l t -Lymphoid nodes – grows quickly in young and even T 75 f larger than adult size but shrinks back o 50 % i - These difference in growth pattern in maturation z 25 suggest there is no single pattern of growth S 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 Age in Years Changes in Body Proportions: Growth Trends  Cephalo-caudal development : o Growth occurs from the head to downwards  e.g. in infancy – larger head than trunk o Exception to this – in motor development reaching w/ feet comes before than hands  better co-ordination of feet than hands  Proximal-distal development o Growth begins near center of body axis  trunk of body grows before upper arms o Upper arms grow before lower arms & hand o Exception – at puberty hands and feet grow before arms & legs Continuous vs. Episodic Growth When looking at growth at yearly stage  it looks like continuous growth from infancy to adulthood (Graph at top) - because it average But this is misrepresentation  when looking at growth at smaller interval (i.e. months)  it looks EPISODIC - w/ dramatic growt
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