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Lecture 10

PSYB20 - Lecture 10.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 – Lecture 10 Prof’s Speech - Purple Slide 2 – Who is a peer? What functions do peers serve? - Definition of a peer: o Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary  A “peer” is one who is of equal standing with another o Peers as social equals, or individuals who are operating at the same level of behavioural complexity as you - What functions do peers serve? o Same age or equal status peers  When children interact among agemates, children take on new roles, learn rules/lessons o Mixed age interactions  Different age groups can be peers with each other if they adapt to the younger/older level  Different age interactions are asymmetrical  Older children usually possess more power/competence than other children  Mixed age groups are fixed in families – older siblings will always be older siblings – whereas mixed age groups can change in other environments  Importance of mixed age interactions  Asymmetry helps the child develop different competencies – i.e. leadership, etc.  Younger children can learn to ask for help, follow directions of more powerful others, learn from the behavior of older peers  Differences between mixed age and same age interactions o Frequency of peer contacts  Between age 2-12, children spend a greater amount of time with peers and less time with adults o Gender  By 1-2 years of age, children show gender segregation – they are likely to choose someone of the same gender to play with  Boys tend to play in packs, girls play in pairs o How important are peer contacts?  Harlow’s work with monkeys  Looked at monkeys raised by their mothers but without any peers o The monkeys didn’t develop normal patterns of behaviour o They avoided or acted aggressively when introduced to other monkeys  Peer-only monkey displayed abnormal behaviour as well o Monkeys couldn’t be separated from each other because of strong attachment issues  A human parallel – research by Anna Freud  3 kids found at 3 years old living along on Nazi camp, parents had died Slide 3 – The Development of Peer Sociability - Infant beginnings: o Infants are sociable creations (towards parents) o Are infants’ socially blind?  Early claims – babies don’t show interest in other babies in the first few months o Peer interactions in the 1 year  Infant smiling and babbling  By the middle of the first year, babies will smile at other babies, give toys to other babies o Peer interactions between 12 and 18 months  Children begin to react more appropriately towards one another o Peer interactions between 18 and 24 months  Coordinated interactions that are social  Children will imitate, smile, and take turns with one another o Peer interactions after 24 months  By 24 months, children can play complementary games  Children will try to coordinate actions mutually to achieve a goal  Secure kids are more popular than insecure kids  Coordinated activities – children have to have the cognitive awareness of the self before they can participate o They start to display these at the same time when they can recognize self in the mirror - Peer sociability during the preschool years: o The character of peer interactions  2-5 years – more outgoing, direct social gestures to the wider audience  Older kid play is more focused on the other child and approval from the other child in terms of how they’re playing o Parten’s (1932) social play characterizations  Talked about play and social development  3-step sequence  Non-social play – unoccupied onlooker, solitary play, don’t try to engage others  Parallel play – child plays near other children, but not actually with other children, not necessarily interacting  Cooperative play – children play with other children, borrow toys, converses, and interacts with other child Slide 4 – Howes and Matheson (1992) Cognitive Complexity of Social Interactions - Expanded plays (above) in terms of complexity of social interactions going on - For siblings – the nature of social interaction varies because they are typically mixed-groups - For older children – social interactions begin to include actual games – i.e. monopoly, scrabble Slide 5 – Cooperation and Competition on Children’s Play - Grade 1 and 3 children – play board game o Play with either competitive or cooperative rules o As the child is playing the game, their partner is playing with the opposite rules o What do we do in this conflict?  When rules mismatch, grade 1 children simply matched their behaviour to their partners, and ignore their own rules  Grade 3 children showed a mixture – they were aware of the two different types of behaviours, so they tried to mix the two - By adolescence – spend most time associating with friends/cliques, rather than parents, family o Groups are a way for adolescents to define their place in social structure  Groups are a means for social outing o the purpose of cliques – allow adolescents to try out new roles and values as they try to find themselves away from their family  paves the way for dating and sexual relationship o some peers are drawn to these cliques, others have difficulties in these types of relationships Slide 6 – Parental Effects on Peer Sociability - Promoting peer contacts: o Parental influence on the amount of peer contacts  Parents can provide opportunity for contact with other children, encourage activities  How much parents promote these interactions impacts sociability o Choice of residence - Monitoring and controlling peer contacts: o Parents arranging play dates
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