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Psychology (7,818)
PSYB32H3 (614)


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Mark Schmuckler

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PSYB20 Attachment  all of these different attachment theories try to explain how and reason for these significant attachment w/ each having  ethological approach) o ethological approach - borrow from other approaches Behaviourist and Psychoanalytical Approach  = importance of feeding behaviour to attachment  feeding behaviour - in drive reduction motivation  w/ feeding important for 2 reason: o 1) elicit positive response from infants which will increase the caregiver affection for infants ( = increase caregiver affection) o 2) Mother will able to relax w/ infant & provide infant all sorts of comfort along w/ food, warmth, soft touches, and reassuring tones etc.  all of which occurs in single setting  infant then associate all pleasurable sensation w/ that individual  mom becomes primary source of reinforcement  feeding is important in terms of building relationship  BUT attachment does not imprt w/ huger o e.g. experiment by Harlow & Zimmerman (1959) - HARLOW's monkey  2 mothers w/ one having bottle & wire (=food provider) and 2 mother made out of soft cloth (=provided contact comfort)  monkeys seek out contact mother for comfort not the food provider for attachment  this shows the opposite to drive reduction model from behaviourist  ALSO - infant attached to other inanimate object that is not providing food  e.g. favourite blankets, teddy bear  especially appreciate soft object when expose to unfamiliar situation  importance of cuddly object – they help manage the stress of unfamiliar object & act as substitute for important people in w/ that object o Experiment – Blanket Attachment & Play  bought infants in w/ one group who hand blanket attached vs. non-attached  put them in 4 situation & measure how much time spent in exploring room (=mean duration of play)  w/ mom - best situation  w/ favourite blanket  w/ toys Blanket Attached Blanket Non-Attached - kinds w/ attached blanket  acted similar pattern as when mom was w/ them vs. non-attached who didn’t y play w/ object at P f n - mom condition is best – w/ both t group playing/exploring of object r u n - so for blanket attached  blanket e is acting as substitute for mom M Mother Blanket Toy No Object Experimental Condition  2nd study  put the children in a scary room o in this case only time they were comfortable - only w/ mom not blanket  in mild stressful blanket helps  Alternative Behaviourist Model = Operant Conditioning Model – o Infants looks, smile, and seek proximity because mom reciprocates w/ reward to this w/ simile and hugs  w/ greater number of behaviours is reinforced by this particular person, the more one is attached to that person o This model moves past feeding & hugging  BUT by itself not adequate  The problem w/ this is that attachment occurs even in serious abuse situation  e.g. Harlow - took bunch of mother monkeys who are socially derived as child and after they grew up  these mother are abusive to their young but young still approach to mother to have comfort contact ( can see similar observation in human children as well)  Behaviour approach also does not explain why attachment relationship still persists when attached figure not present  because if attachment is due to reinforcement then attachment should have disappear if not reinforce  thus, behaviour approach ignore idea there is stable representation of attachment figure despite prolong absence Psychoanalytic Approach  According to Freud - we are motivated by basic drive (= similar to behaviourist drive reduction theory)  chid becomes attached to the person that reduce basic drive  e.g. individual (typically mom) that reduce hunger, thirst ( similar to basis of attachment is behaviour approach o relationship w/ Mom they prototype for romantic relationships throughout life  In his view the child is passive in this process --> what is done to the child  Erickson ‘s Approach  he developed stages: st  1 developmental stage ( birth – 1 year) - basic issue being faced by child is Trust vs. Mistrust  infant is concern w/ who in the world they can trust & children become attached who they can trust ( who they trust are individual who reliably administered to needs) o important aspect to this approach is this is not just mom reduces drive & but it is also the way in which the mom forested trust  overall responsiveness ( e.g. Style of feeding is important) of mom  trust provide emotional support and turn to outside environment  in many ways , it is richer perceptive than behaviour approach  it also brings other aspect of mom-infant relationship  idea that nature of relationship has large impact on personality and later relationship  limitation - drive reduction (at initial theory of Freud’s) o also – it stresses that baby is passive in this relationship & is all about what mom does to the baby o BUT – we known that infant does bring something to relationship (= particular temperament) Alternative 3 view - Cognitive Developmental Approach  It has little to say which adults are most likely that infant is going to become attached  Say that ability to form attachment rely on intellectual functioning of child  need basic cognitive skills to form attachement o E.g. discriminate b/w familiar and unfamiliar people & Object permanent that mom continue to exist even when you don’t see her  Object permeance comes around 8-10 months old  thus timing of attachment & timing of cognitive development have to be sync  there is evidence to support this - e.g. 9 month old object peromance achieved & this is when stronger attachment is formed measured by stronger separation protest from infant  Limitation w/ this approach  it doesn't tell us about who does the child attached to or why it becomes attached & much more limited in the conceptualization of attachment  Overall - all three theories -have something but all have limitation Ethological Approach  currently – this is generally and theoretically accepted for idea or process of attachment  this theory initially inspired by classic work in ethology  work by Laurens in imprinting o young birds have this critical period of development where it establish who is mom & follow her around follow mom around & once establish it becomes difficult to modify o imprinting is fundamentally adaptive because it bring birds proximity of mother & increase survival for that young bird  Bowlby - founder of modern day attachment work o he is psychoanalysis & initially work in attachment was attempt to update modern version of psychoanalytic approach to attachment  BUT end up formulating new theory  infant attachment to mother is adaptive in evolutionary way  it would ultimately increase its survival & are biologically prepared to form this attachment & were active contributor to this attachment process (diff to traditional approach – here infant is active participant )  he did retain concepts from earlier approaches  E.g. importance of attachment figure for emotional support similar to Erikson & recognize the important of cognitive growth as fundamental basis of attachment of relationship  infant is endowed w/ built in behaviour that keep parents close proximity to parent  by being close proximity: o 1) provide support and protection to child o 2) contact mean baby is going to be taken care of o 3) supporting child in exploration of environment (knowing that they are going to be protected  infant for his part begins w/ set of signal that call parents to their side & these inborn behaviour elicit parental care & increase survival o signals or behaviour  e.g. sucking, clinging to parent, smiling at parent, gazing at parent, following mom around  all of which would bring the child to proximity w/ mother (=caregiver) & over time - true affectionate bond b/w mom & parent develops  Bowlby talked about phases (not stages) to attachment: st o 1 phase – birth to 6 weeks pre-attachment – behaviour is matter of genetic determined reflexive that had survival value (e.g. grasping, sucking, crying) that are orientated towards other human being & signal that baby needs something  promote physical contact b/w child and caregiver  evidence for this - the most disturbing at this stage was to actually to put them down & also rudimentary sensory recognition of mom  So can distinguish mom form strangers especially when mom is conveying social info nd o 2 phase - 6week-6/8moths infants now very much focus on orientation & response w/ preference to mom (mom is room, smile and vocalize, follow gaze, baby upset - mom picks up baby)  really orientated towards mom - BUT according to Bowlby no specific attachment has formed on the basis that when a baby is separated from mom  they don't protest (= so mom leaving room is not that horrible)  not separation of mom rather separation from others that bring protest  at end of the 2nd phase  there is steady rise in how upset the child gets when mom leaves room  over 1st year -it begin to become upsetting rd o 3 phase – 6/8 months to 18/24 months  there is clear cut attachment  attachment to mom is strong & is clear  see all sorts of behaviour that indicate child is fundamentally focus and attached to mom  e.g. separation anxiety(mom leaves room & baby upset)  12 moth or 14 moth-screaming and crying when mom leaves & by 18 months, the infant is most upset when mom leaves  other developmental achievement during this time  1) Growth of independent locomotion  infants are becoming mobile  e.g. crawling & walking  mobility introduce whole host of additional behaviour that child can do  e.g. follow mom around physically (= control their
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