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Lecture 8


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Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20-lec 8 Language in infancy and toddlerhood -end of first years start producing first words, that are based on sensorimotor types of behaviors -underextension: where infants use a particular word but narrowly -overextensions: use the word to a wider range of objects ex: car, to trucks trains buses -vocab improves these disappear -as toddlers add to their vocab, -once they produce 200 words, they start to combine these words-telegraphic speech -grammatical errors with 2 word utterances are rare -language comprehension exceeds language production, there is a 5 month lag, they can comprehend 50 words 5 months sooner than they can produce em -comprehension requires recognition memory -production requires recall memory -recall takes long, so they rely on general cognitive structures which are easier Language in childhood -vocabulary see huge increases, children learn 5 words a day -a process by which they connect new words to diff things is fast map, quickly connecting words to concepts -children fast map labels for objects, things are easily perceived ex: shoe, ball -they talk about objects to learn the meaning of the words -verbs require understanding between relation of objects, take longer to understand that the verbs can be extended to another object -other language verbs are easier learned than English speakers, because the verbs are more stressed in the sentences -elementary year 4000 worsd, 20 words a day -children learn to read which contributes to learning language, they are exposed to 2million words per year -they think more about the meanings of words and get better use of the words -children have a mutual exclusivity bias: assume separate words apply to separate categories, use words exclusive ex:nouns are referred to as being organized by shape -3 yrs memory, categorization language is expanded -they discover word meanings by observing how they are used in syntaxe, syntactic bootstrapping -the infant will realize that the real world is an adjective that refers to the object they are seeing -new word being used in all diff sentences the new word is descrbing all these objects, figure out from syntaxe the way the word is being used -parents explain what words mean, ex: you can say sea creature but its also a dolphin -acquire vocab easily, that many people believe that children are biased to learning words -a built in principles doesn’t explain the flexible manner in which children learn vocab -vocab growth is governed by the same types of cognitive approach that are used to learn others things -grammar refers to the way we combine words to make phrases and sentences -expand by using verbs, learn they can extend the use of verbs to other objects -becoming sensitive to basic aspects of grammatical structure, subject verb something constructions -preschoolers grasp more complex structures -within school years grammar extends dramatically -grammar is a concept of general cognitive development -children rely on semantics, word meanings to undertand the word semantic bootstrapping -they group the words together and begin to figure out the grammar structure -learn grammar by observations in sentences, what words appear in sentences in the same position -others argued that when we look at bootstrapping, these are the types of things that pertain to language acquisition devices -children need to elarn affective and appropriate communication- take turns, state opinion clearly=pragmantics of conversation -2 yrs of age skilled conversationists, they will take turns understand that for conversation they need to respond, and this grows out of earlier interactive experiences –such as with siblings -so having siblings helps them learn early pragmatics -by 4 respond to expectations, use commands more and so they know the social expectations -very common for a 4 year old to use hand gestures and facial whne they are on the telephone ex: how old are u hold up 4 fingers -when you ask them on the phone to give directions, they are more specific on the phone, they understand the nature of the phone -they gain ability to evaluate clarity of other people’s messages, ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ch 8, 9,10,7-exam 2 Lec 8 Attachment -freud suggested foundation for adult personality were laid 5-6yrs -children form emotional relationships with their close companions, and these can affect the way they relate to other people, so these are crucial to development -emotion attachment are the strong ties that bond a person to antoeher person Theories of attachment: behaviorist approach -emphasize importance of feeding -for behaviorist feeding is involved in a drive reduction -it elicits positive responses, from happy baby and these positive responses increase care from parent -mother provides child with additional comfort, so the infant eventually associates mom with all the pleasurable feelings -mom becomes a source of reinforcement -feeding is important has been compelling evidence that attachment doesnt depend on hunger satisfaction -study: cloth mother vs the wire mother according to Harlow, the infant monkeys aren’t becoming attached because the mother is feeding them, but more the contact comfort they are getting -human infants become attached to the objects that don’t have drive reductions? -they like stuffed animals, especially when they are exposed to threatening situations, these animals help the child manage the stress, the anxiety of maternal separation -these stuffed animals are serving as a sub for mom -blanket attachment study: half had a blanket the others didn’t, they were brought to a strange room, assigned to 1 of 4 conditions. 1.fave toy 2. Nothing 3. blanket 4. mother , in the room with mom they blanket attached play and non blanket attached, when the blanket room kids blanket attached play like mom was there -but this doesn’t mean that when mom is gone u can just use the blanket, tested this in stressed room, spookiness, it’s a substitute in a not so stressful situation -operant condition where infant looks smile seek proximity to mom because mom reciprocates with smiles, the greater number of behaviors reinforced, the stronger the attachment to that person-mom has positive aspects that’s y I wanna be with mom -doesn’t go all the way tho, harlow studied this in serious abuse -took socially deprived mother monkeys- deprived as infants, when they had children they were violet towards infants monkeys, but regardless the infant monkeys seek contact with their abusive mommy’s -it is not unusual to seek proximity with abusive parent -behaviorist approach does not explain y attachment behaviors persist even when figure is not present -attachemnt relationships are stable even in absence goes against behavorist approaches Psychoanalytic approach -interaction between child and parent set the pattern for later dev -children become attached to ind who reduced biological drive, hunger mom does so they become attached to mom -for freud this forms cornerstone for relationships for the rest of the childs life -prototype for the rest of relationships -erikson, he talked about attachment as developing in first development stage-trust vs mistrust -the infant was concerned with trust, who can I trust in the world, can I trust mom will be there to protect me, feed me and support me -infants become attached to those who administer to their needs - trust mom, they can tolerate her absence that she’ll return -he’s not just talking about feeding, he is more talking about moms overall responsiveness to him, the style that the infant is responded to ex: feeding is provided with gentle care, provides infant with emotional shelter -develop trust turn attention to outside world -trust is stems basic needs, suffers form the same problems as behaviorist approach -views the newborn as extremely passive in this process, it doesn’t say the baby contributes, there’s too much emphasis on maternal behavior -too lil that is said about what the infant brings to the relationship, like temperament, its just about how mom does things Cognitive developmental theory -very lil to say about which adults the infant becomes attached too -focus is to remind us about the wholistic character about dev -the ability to form attachments depends on the childs level of cognitive reasoning and dev - before attachment can occur, the infant has to discriminate between mom and other adult -the also have to recognize that familiar ind have permanence, to be attached to mom have to know that mom continues to exist even when she is not there- need object permanence -attachemnt therefore doesn’t appear to exist until 8 moths 9months of age -not until reach 4 sensorimotor stage -timing of social attachment is related to timing of developmental cognitive a
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