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PSYB32H3 (614)
Lecture 9


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20-lec 9 Socialization -context and influences that help the child learn to behave and become part of the social world -diff types of contexts, but 2 that rise to the top -1. Family -2. Peer structure and context The family -most important context, unique source of ties for the child, child experiences commitment love -affection bonds are formed with parents, siblings…and these last -social relation forms the prototype for the types of relationship that will occur during the rest of the childs life -conflicts and discipline first experiences, such as riveraly for resources, gets first lessons of compliance and cooperation and how to influence other people’s behave -survival of group living arrangements -lot of non human primates that live insocial groups -but humans form into family units -where does the family unit come from what are the functions and purpose - Five functions necessary for the survival of society Reproductions: means of remplacing dyin members Economic: good services must be produced and distributed for support Societal order: means for reducing conflict and reducing conflict Socialization: train the young to be contributing members to the environment Emotional support: binding ind together to provide support during times of needs -it use to be necessary for the family to maintain these, but now its just to much to only rely on the family, so we have institutes that help, such as school, government, church. -in economic the family use to be the basic unit of economic activity, the family could produce enough that the fam could provide, but now that has been taking over by work, work produces, family is consumption -children use to contribute to economic, you could get work out of them, now they are economic liabilities (don’t get good work out of them they just cost you money) -family unit is still involved in reproduction, socialization and emotional support -these are the ones that are mostly related to children Social systems view of family socialization -family is not seen as unidirectional influence -the influence is bidirectional, the parents influences the child but the child influences the parents -there are reciprocal causal effects -this is effected by other family relationships such as child to child, or parent to parentwhich has an impact on child as well -parents feel confidence towards the relation to their child, when they fell better about their own marriage -these influences change over time, as child grows the relations between the family change -you have to place these relations in an overall context, there are interchanges that occur between boundary of inner fam and outer external world Ex: community connections are signi for the well beign of the family Formal organization:schools daycares Informal organizations: friends neighbors -it is more much more likely to be fragmented connection in urban, more connected in rural -when you have strong ties in the community you see lower rates -social ties are alleviated the stress that can occur in families Why are social ties effective buffers against family stress -social support provide parents with interpersonal acceptance, neighbors can talk to parents about their fears or parenting issues, this can enhance parents self confidence -social ties provide an opportunity for the exchange of information, or goods and services, do you know a good babysitter, wheres the best grocery store? This helps the parents relationship makes things easier -community connections cant provide controls and or methods for child rearing, parents can see different method and models and they can receive feedback from other parents of what they see as effective methods -community connections provide secondary adult influences, as the child becomes more active, they come into connection with other adults and these other adults can have an influence on the childs life as well Dimensions of parenting warmth -parents who are high on this dimension are accepting of the child, -how responsive is the parent to the child, this shows the warmth, how many positive emotions do they show -warm parents respond to the childs needs instead of frustrating, they praise the child even when they didn’t do anything to merit it -warm parents are successful at socializing children and raising them -study: notion of responsiveness waxler Asked parents to keep track of childs behavior when child saw someone in distress, how did they respond, did they confort the playmate They borught in the parents and categorized them in high responsiveness or low. Those who were high, their children were much more likely to comfort hurt playmate then a child of a less responsive parent Less responsive parents child were the ones who caused the playmates distress, and how likely were they to engage in reperation? Make it up to them? Less responsive parents child was less likely -so parent warmth has an effect on the childs behavior, young children can be very affective Dimension of parenting: control -no parent wants a child viewed as being out of control -most parents agree that control could be excessive, they want a happy medium, don’t want too much or too little -parental control can be too restrictive or too permissive, so its hard to find the middle ground Positive aspects of control -a number of diff behaviors or patterns that parents do -when parents have high expectations for a child, they will train their child to meet that -parents who do not expect, have children that do not behave in a certain way, so its important to have expectations -the parent needs to train the child that enables them to meet expectations, so the standards the parent sets needs to be attainable Ex: it is not reasonable to expect your child will be quiet in a long ceremony of church So you have to be prepared, you have an expectation for the child to behave, and ur using toys to attain that, making it reasonable -set too many expectations, make the child anxious, not be so demanding of the child -parents who are good at this idea, have children who are well adjusted, -parents should reinforce rules of behavior consistently, even 2 yr olds behave consistently when they are reinforced, but parent needs to be consistent, then children will benefit they will learn self control -a parent can’t always be consistent, but most of the time they should -parents who value the rules and who insist on rules, also take the time and opportunity take the time to explain the rules, this has a positive influence on the child -discussion allows and understanding of the nature of the rules, parents who are more open they tend to have children who behave more calmly in social situations, they understand why they are not suppose to do things -in situation management, parents anticipate problematic situations and arrange them so they can get appropriate behavior from the child eX: followed mothers with young children around grocery and saw what moms did to achieve appropriate behavior in the grocery store,, there was 1 request per min from the child. Majority of time mom said no and that was sufficient, when
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