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Lecture 11


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20-lec 11 Developmental trends in gender typing Discrimination of the gender concept -when does the child begin to understand their sex -be able to discriminate male from females, put urself into one of these categories -end of first year they can discriminate photographs of men and females -put pictures of male faces together with sound of male voices-intermodal knowledge of gender identity -2 and 3 yrs they egin to tell us they have a deeper understanding -they know to associate mommy and daddy with female and male -2 and a half years they can label themselves as a boy or girl -thy haven’t develop sense of gender constancy they don’t know that gender doesn’t change -3-5 childre and still confused about gender constancy- grow my hair I can be a girl -gender constancy or conservation occurs at the same time as other skills -when begin to develop a sense it is done in a particular order, they do it to themselves first, then for same sex others, then finally for other sex children Gender role sterotype -toddlers acquire sex role stereotypes same time they become aware of their gender -almost all 2.5 yr had some knowledge of stereotypes, ex: girls talk more, they play with dolls and boys play with cars -knowledge of gender stereotype is related to ability to understand the genders -children learn more about toys activities that are appropriate for males and females in preschool -they can distinguish them based on psychological dimensions -learn positive traits about their gender and negative about other -10 childrens general stereotype are robust -how seriously do they believe the stereotypes -children are actually strict about it, they want ppl to behave accordingly, they use th stereotype as rules that cant be violated -gender related issues are extremely important and this is whn they classify themselves as a boy or girl -and so they exaggerate the importance of these roles to get a clear fix of the notion -evetually by 8 they become more flexible less chauvinistic -they will say itsfine to pursue a cross gender activity -even with this flexibilitythey don’t necessarily approve of cross gender activities -easily more tolerant of girls doing guy things than guys doing girl things -this suggest there is more pressure on boys to conform on gender role status Development of gender type play -gender appropriateness, observe who child plays with and the types of toys -see gender preferences early and that you see gender identity, before they say im a boy or im a girl, they know what toys are appropriate -preferences for same sex playmates evolves early as well -gender segregation has been observed in a variety of cultures and gets stronger with tasks -children spend about 10 times more time playing with same sex than they do with opposite playmates -playing with same sex found more socially competent -children with a lot of cross sex friendships early in life are more likely to be rejected -gender values hold early but then diminish -study: social behavior varies according to gender -girls more social behave toward other girls, and the girls would shy away from the boys -the way the boys were playin was scaring the girls Theories of gender typing biological and psychoanalytic Bio -genetic anatomical variatios are responsible for sex linked behaviors -genetic and hormonal differences are responsible for sex linked behavior differences -males and females are fundamental predisposed to the behaviors they do ex: boys are predispopsed to aggressive play -parents play into this, they treat their sons and daughters diff Freud -acknowledges social and biological, sexuality was innate, everyone was born bisexual and what causes gender identity was identification -gender identity was cause by emulating parents of the same gender -oedipus complex -it is true theyacquire sexual stereotypes by the age that freud predicted -the boys whose fathers aren’t around during edipus they have been found to be less masculine -3-6 shuld understand male and female genitilia -if they don’t understand it Oedipus complex falls apart Social learning and cognitive dev -direct tuition parents teachers and other reinforce sex appropriate behavior -parents are actively involved in behavs -do parents shape behave? -study: look at fam and look at the nature of responses parent gives child in respond to child gender,and parents do respond differently in response to gender behave ex: they would punish boys for opposite gender activity -in observational learning, children learn sex like behaviors by observing same sex models -for this to happen they’d have to pay attention more to same gender models -they are being reinforced for imitating same sex behaviors reinforced children for paying attention -once they acquire gender identity, same sex are more worthy because they see themselves as more similar to same sex -so there are reasons they’d pay attention to same sex, however they dont pay much attention til later -not until 6-7 they don’t pay attention, they are more interested in gender behavior rather than identity itself -kohlber children make cognitive judgements about themselves and precedes selective attention or identification -basic gender identity: recognize male vs female -gender stability: recognize gender is stable over time -gender consistency: gender is stable over tiem and across diff situations -acquire the values and behaviors that are consistent with already made cognitive judgment about themselves -prob sex typing is well under way before children develop a sense of gender identity -boys play with boy toys before they know they are boys -3 year olds know about sexual stereotype before there is sexual attention to same sex role models Gender schema theory -info processing, it assumes that children are instrisically motivated to acquire values consisten with judgments about the self -self socialization is underway when they learn gender consistency -gender schema: organized set of beliefs and expectations about men vs females -first children develop ingroup outgroup scheme and lets children develop roles characteristics of either male or female -this model affects children form of thinking -then they develop own set schema wher they develop detailed info about their own genders stuff they need to know to take on gender appropriate behaviors consistently -once schemas are formed the gender schemas structure experience by providing means of organizing processing info -we pay more attention to info that fits with our schema, more likely to remember info consistent with schema -gender schema theory, talks about how emerging schemas emerge to gender role Moral development -morality applies distinguishing right from wrong and acting on this and engaging behavior that its morals -implict moral mature ind do not submit to societies because they fear punishment, we have internalized more principles and we follow them even when authority figures aren’t present demonstrating internalization –a crucial milestone in moralization -psychologists focus on 3 components of morality -affective component: emotional component that has to do with feeling thet surround right or wrong and motivates actions -cognitive conmponent: on the way we understand and make decisions on how to behave -behavioral: how we actually behave whn faced with moral situation, do we lie cheat -these are also associated with
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