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PSYB32H3 (614)


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Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20-ch 14 An overview of moral development -every society has a system of rules about the rightness and the wrongness of certain behaviors -satisfaction when conforming and emotional discomfort when violating -internalization, children incorporate other’s ideas and beliefs into own concepts of themselves and develop personal standards of conduct -3 basic components of morality: cognitive, behavioral and emotional -cognitive, knowledge of ethical rules and judgments of the goodness and badness of acts -behavioral, people’s actual behavior in situations that invoke ethical considerations -emotional, people’s feeling about situations and behaviors that involve moral and ethical decisions -empathy: experiencing the same emotion that some else is Cognitive theories of moral development Piaget’s cognitive theory of moral development -mature morality includes both an understanding and acceptance of social rules and a concern for equality and reciprocity in human relationships, form basis of justice -how children change their attitudes toward rules in common games and by examining the way they change their judgments of the seriousness of transgressions over time Learning the rules of moral behavior -premoral stage: show little concern for or awareness of the rules, gain satisfaction from manipulating the marbles and finding out how they can be used in different ways -moral realism: develop great concern and respect for rules that come from authority, see rules as immutable and unchanging and not to be questioned. See moral aboutilism, which is a rigidity in the rules. Immanent justice: any deviation from the rules as inevitably resulting in punishment (karma) -2 factors contribute: egocentrism (only see situations as they do) and immature way of thinking (confuse external reality with their own thought processes and subjective experiences) -morality of reciprocity: judgments are characterized by the recognition that social rules are arbitrary agreements that can be questioned and changed -realize obedience to authority is neither necessary nor always desirable, and violations of the rules are not always wrong or inevitable punished -if behavior is to be punished should be related to both the wrongdoer’s intentions and the nature of transgression -equalitarianism; they believe there should be equal justice for all Evaluation of piaget’s theory -they found regular age trends in the development of moral judgment from moral realism to moral reciprocity, but other cultures this is less consistent, different cultures the belief in immanent justice increases rather than decreases with age -piaget underestimated the cognitive capacities of young children, knew moral realism younger -viewing the scenarios rather than hearing them allowed the children to see more info like facial expressions and emotions and they could better judge the intentions -underestimation of young children’s ability to make moral judgments, piaget mixed action outcome with actor intention -when they were separated children were better and understood the basis of judgment Kholberg’s cognitive theory of moral development -believed that the child’s cognitive capabilities determine the evolutions of her moral reasoning -preconventional level: desire to avoid punishment and gain rewards -conventional level: children identify with their parents and conform to what they regard as right and wrong, internalized the motive to conform, not ethical standards -post-conventional level: moral judgment is rational and internalized and the conduct is controlled by and internalized ethical code *ch for stages 542 -kholberg predicted no special level of response at any specific age, the general sequence of stages is followed in these participants responding -sequence should be invariant across cultures -once a person has attained a high level of moral cognition, he will typically not regress and to back to earlier stages Moral development in girls and woman -kohlberg failed to take account of possible differences in the moral orientation of females and males -researchers have rates most women’s moral judgment on these tests at stage 3, the stage in which morality is conceived in terms of goodness and badness, they maintain the goodwill and approval of others -gilligan, said his theory fails to account for gender based differences -study mothers used more care than justice orientations where fathers displayed slightly more justice than care orientation -but when they were asked to focus on real like dilemmas they both father and mother focused on caring -gilligan argues that the caring and interpersonal perspective should be added to the understanding of moral reasoning in all people, different parts of the brain involved in decision making regardless of gender Effects of social interaction on moral development -programs focus on peer discussion of controversial moral issues and practice exploring solutions -interventions did foster moral judgment and promote closer links between judgment and behavior -children’s moral judgments are also advanced when their parents use consistent disciplinary techniques that involve reasoning and explanation -children’s understanding of moral rules begin at a very early age Evaluation of kohlbergs theory -dominant pattern of responding of moral reasoning in most adults appears to be conventional -research has generally supported the sequencing of stages -criticism, people often show a remarkable inconsistency in their moral judgments -depending on situation they used diff moral judgments -moral reasoning is a process of coordinating different perspectives of a moral dilemma as opposed to simply focusing on the application of rules -theory is simply poorly equipped to account for the ways in which people make moral decisions in their everyday lives -cross cultural studies, individuals, regardless of backgrounds, developed through the stage sequence in the same manner -research evidence suggests the cultural bias, some cultures couldn’t even relate -kholbergs focus on individual rights and obligations may lead to underestimates of moral development in other cultures or may exclude some culturally unique domains of morality -moral judgments differ depending on the way questions are presented -moral judgments involve the needto balance competing moral issues and kohlbergs original stories oversimplified the nature of the dilemmas people face in everyday moral decision making -history shapes views of morality, makes them sensitive to some events Distinguishing moral judgments from other social rules -rules for behavior and social conventions-socially based rules about everyday conduct -children as young as 3 can distinguish moral issues from social convention issues -children view moral violations as more wrong because they result in harm to another and violate norms of justice and other’s rights, wheras they see deviations from social conventions as impolite or disruptive -moral issues are fixed invariant across cultures, social conventions are arbitrary and relative and vary across communities and cultures -children’s differential between moral and conventional rules has implications for another aspect of moral development, the development of tolerance -children are intolerant of moral violations, often tolerate divergent social conventions -mother’s of 2 year olds responded to social conventions violations with rules about social order and social regulation that focused on the disorder that they act created -respond to moral transgressions by focusing on the consequences of the acts for other’s rights and welfare or by making perspective takin requests Do moral judgments always lead to moral behavior -the maturity of a child’s moral judgment does not necessarily predict how the child will actually behave -children’s behavior is impulsive and not guided by rational and deliberate thought -older children, moral judgments and behaviors may be linked -executing a moral action step 1 child interprets the situation in terms of how other people’s welfare could be affected by his actions. Step 2 the child figures out what the ideally moral course of action would be given the possibilities in step 1. Step 3 the child decides what to do and finally in step 4 the child actually performs the action chosen The behavioral side of moral development Self regulation and delay of gratification -self regulation: the ability to control behavior on their own without reminders from others -they learn to inhibit or direct their actions to conform to moral rules -control phase: children first initiate, maintain and modulate or cease acts when an adult makes a demand -children are highly dependent on the caregiver for reminder signals about acceptable behaviors -self control phase: children gain the ability to comply with caregiver expectations in the absence of external monitors -self regulation phase: able to use strategies and plans to direct their behavior and to aid them in resisting temptation and delay gratification (putting off reward for another time) -children who are self regulators have a stronger sense of moral self, they endorse and internalize parental values and rules and make conscious efforts to control their behavior even when it requires giving up or postponing pleasurable outcomes -consistent and carefully timed punishment as well as the provision of a rationale for compliance help increase resistance to temptation -adjusted parental input heightens the child’s own abilities to use verbally based control strategies -models who follow rules, siblings, are often affective in reducing cheating in young children -responive orientation involving cooperation and shared positive affect between mother and child aids in conscience development (internalized values and standards of behavior) The affective side of morality -children showed sense of guilt when they broke the toys -older children masked guilt -some cultures,girls showed more guilt than men because they respect rules more -fearful temperament contributes to guilt proness which in turn serves to inhibit children’s tendency to violate rules -lack of guilt does not deter them from future rule violation-fearless children The evolution of prosocial and altruistic behavior -prosocial behavior: is voluntary behavior that is intended to benefit another -altruistic behavior: voluntary behavior that is designed to help someone else -altruism is unselfish concern for others, and willingness to help without the thought of compensation or reward, sometime even sacrificing their own needs How prosocial behavior evolves -children engage in these early sharing activities without prompting or direction and without being reinforced by praise Changes in prosocial behaviors -13-14 months, they often approach and comfort another child in distress -age 2 prosocial actions are verbal advice, indirect help, sharing and protection -children grow older, they are generally more likely to engage in prosocial behave -toddlers who display self recognition are more empathetic and prosocial and those who are able to take another’s perspective are more prosocial Stability and styles of prosocial behavior -behaviors were moderately stable between the two ages, those prosocial at 4 were likely to be at 9 -similar findings were found cross culturally -infants and children develop their own styles of dealing with other’s distress, some more aggressive, some emotional, some reflecti
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