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Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 Lec 1 Responsible for all info in the class and everything in the textbook important are experiments and findings and experiments that contradict. History of development psychology What is development: temporary changes are not thought of as development. Such as hair cuts hair color change. Contemporary western society views childhood as a special time. We lean towards protecting the children and providing them with what they need. Did these views occur in our history? This conception did seem to be around during the medieval times. We saw back duthng those times that children were different than the adults. During the 14 century manuals came out about proper childcare. Laws came out showing that children needed protection from people who mistreated them. If you looked at religions points, it often spoke about contradictory nature of children. One hand they are portrayed as little innocent angels, on the other hand as being possessed by the devil. Nonetheless childhood is a special time Childhood in the reformation -puritans gave strong emphasis to the fact that children are born evil and are more like cats. -they are original sing -so puritans goals were to teach the child to behave. So during this time children are dressed in a stiff like clothing, they are trained to behave like adults. -in education like context, the children could be disciplined, beat by teacher. -as the puritans immigrated they brought this belief with them. -the puritans continued to see the childrens soul tainted by negative. -they would punish the child to teach the child. Parents would encourage to teach the children self control. Philosophical roots of human development John Locke and the British Empiricists -the conception of childhood became more human then it previously was. -john locke viewed the mind of a child as a blank slate the child begins as nothing, the child is not good nor evil -all knowledge of the childs character is taken through experiences. -the parents teach and mold the child. -recommended child rearing practices, the use of praises and rewards to get the child to do something as opposed to giving the child money and sweets -they did physical punishment -locke had a continous view of development. Adult behaviors will gradually build up through the child thru consistent behavior -the tabula rasa shows that the environment plays a crucial role in child development. -there are many different pathways that a child could take in development.-plasticity in environment John-jacques rousseau -became the leading philosopher of his day. -he didn’t talk of children as blank states rather a child as a noble savage, the child was naturally endowed with a sense of righ and wrong and had an innate plan for healthy growth. -lead him to the devices, they will develop in the right way. -bad development is due to lack of parental training. -the adult must be receptive to the childs needs. -introduced the stage-organize period of development -emphasized the component of maturation-natural enfolding of a course of growth -child born with innate ideas and knowledge that unfolds naturall with age and adults could harm this force. -development proceeds through series of stages guided by inborn timetable. -they can be screwed up by adults, they misguide and confuse them through right and wrong. Charles Darwin -had critical implications for development -studied it by studyin his own son. -natural selection has to do with the environment in which the animal exist places demands on the animal. -the area where they live, the animal has to have the means to get the food -the animal needs certain characteristics to fit in a certain environment. -the natural environment selects the animals that are more likely to survive. -survival of the fittest, the organisms with the characteristics that fit the environment are more likely to survive. -they need to fit the requirements, then pass on these requirements to their offspring. -maybe the development of the human child was similar to that of evolution. (ontology recapitulates phylogeny) -this led to a notion that what we need to be doing is charting the paralele to specific notions of evolution. -but this led to specific aspects of children development. G Stanley Hall -influenced by Darwin. -translated darwins principles into theories. -recapitulationist theory, develop of ind proceeds through stages that are similar to the development of entire species. -the development of the ind mimics growth of species. -behavior mimics that of the previous. -but its not that accurate -its more of an anology that’s superficial. -it is an inappropriate description, that young children are like our older ancestors. -by the age of 2 the human infant has exceeded the cognitive capacity of our ancestors. -hall observed children to get a sense of what they do and how they behave, and the notion of detail observation was important. -lewis terman-cognitive dev of children. Introduced intelligence test (student of hall) -dectected changes of intelligence in students -Arnold Gesell-interested in motor behavior. Emphasized observation of children from birth through childhood. Cataloged ways children moved. (student of hall) We are interested in the how of development more than the what. Themes of developmental theories Theory -set of concepts of propostions tha
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