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Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 TEXTBOOK NOTES Chapter 1Child development identifies and describes changes in the childs cognitive emotional motor and social capacities and behaviours from the moment of conception through the period of adolescence Maturation genetically determined process of growth that unfolds naturally over a period of time Arnold Gesell believed in this John B Watson placed his emphasis strictly on the environment Assumed that biological factors placed no restriction on the ways that the environment can shape the course of a childs development Some psychologists view development as a continuous process whereby each new event builds on earlier experience There is a smooth and gradual accumulation of abilities Some view it as a discontinuous development It is seen as a series of discrete steps or stages in which behaviours get reorganized into a qualitatively new set of behavioursInteractionist viewpoint stressing the dual role of individual and contextual factorsSleeper effect cope with the problems with initially but exhibit problems later on in life Theories have two functions they help organize and integrate existing info into coherent and interesting accounts of how children develop They also generate testable hypotheses or predictions about childrens behaviour Good theory allows one to make sense of a greater number of observations based on the fewest number of premises and can be then used to formulate settings for the collection of new observations Freud was interested in emotions and personalities piaget was interested in thinking Both had structuralorganismic perspectives They both believed that the child when through discontinuous stages over the course of development Psychodynamic theory emphasizes how the experiences of early childhood shape the development of adult personalityTABLE 11The way in which the child negotiates the oral anal and phallic stages has a profound impact on emotional development and the adult personality Eg Those that had an unsatisfied need for oral stimulation may be more likely to smoke In Erik Eriksons psychosocial theorycharacterizes by the personal and social tasks that the individual must accomplish as well as the risks the individual confronts if she fails to process through the stages successfullyPiagetian theory principle of organization reflects the view that human intellectual development is a biologically organized process Used the principle of adaptation to describe the process by which intellectual change occurs as the human mind becomes increasingly adapted to the worldBehaviourism emphasizes the role of experience and its a gradual continuous view Cognitive social learning theory children learn through observing and imitating othersFour processes govern how well a child will learn by observing another personChild must attend to a models behaviourThe child must retain the observed behaviours in memoryThe child must have the capacity physically and intellectually to reproduce the observed behavioursThe child must be motivated or have a reason to reproduce the behaviourInformationprocessing approaches focus on the flow of info through the cognitive system beginning with an inputstimulus and ending with an outputresponseDynamic systems theory individuals develop and function within systems it studies the relationships among individuals and systems and the processes by which these relationships operate The word dynamic underscores the constant interaction and mutual influence of the elements in the system LOOK AT TABLE 12 pg 14Sociocultural theory development is seen as evolving out of childrens interactions with more skilled others in their social environment Eg A tutor teachers helps the child to read write add and subtract EtcEcological theory stresses the importance of understanding not only the relationships between the organism and various environmental systems but also the relations among such systems themselvesMicrosystem the context in which child live and interact with the people and institutions closest to them Eg Parents peers and schoolMesosystem interrelations that occur among the components of the microsystem with which the child interactsExosystem collection of settings that impinge on a childs development but in which the child doesnt play a direct role Eg Parents work may affect the childs life if it requires the parent to travel or work late in the nightMacrosystem system that surrounds the above systems and represents the values ideologies and laws of the society or cultureChronosystem timebased dimension that can alter the operation of all other levels from micro to macrosystemLifespan perspective incorporates historical factors that may influence psychological development Ethological theory behaviour must be viewed and understood as occurring in a particular context and as having adaptive or survival value Basic method of study is the observation of children in their natural surroundings and their goals are to develop detailed descriptions and classifications of behaviour Eg Child cried to catches parents attention when it is hungryEvolutionary psychology have a major impact on the study of cognition and cognitive development Look at table 13
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