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PSYB32 - Lecture 01 Notes.docx
PSYB32 - Lecture 01 Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 – Lecture 01 (Chapter 1) WebOption – Summer 2013 *Slides are downloadable off Blackboard. *There is no class to attend; it is all based off of previously recorded lectures from the Fall 2012 session Slide 4  He says that MC Qs in the Study Guide are helpful towards exams Slide 5  Midterm 1 is worth the most because it has the most chapters to study for  *He says as course goes along he’ll hint as to what’s “interesting” (ie what will likely be on the exam) and what isn’t o *In the textbook, really focus on the sections dealing with what he already discussed in lecture – they’ll almost definitely be tested on  He adds that the entire textbook is fair game Slide 6  E-Mail T.A.s about missed exams Slide 8  This lecture will be covering Chapter 1 of the textbook  Said he’s going to deviate from the chapter a little o Be careful because ppl say to focus more on the textbook as it’s his go-to source for exams rather than lecture content  Says his favourite lecture is Lecture 4 (Chapter 4): Clinical Assessment Procedures  Midterm #1 – 80 MC questions; Chapters 1-5 Slide 14 – What is Abnormal Behaviour?  He conducts a test called Digit Span on the class o Says a bunch of numbers and asks us to repeat them in the same order o Class was able to repeat up to 5-6 digits on average Slide 15 – Bell curve of Digit Span scores  1 way which we define abnormality is by Statistical Infrequency  Say if someone got 2 digits (the easiest) wrong, their performance on Digit Span would be statistically infrequent when compared to the norm (healthy people without cognitive disorder)  Neuropsychologists and psychologists, etc define abnormality (or are alerted of potential abnormality, that there may be something wrong) when a patient’s score on some sort of measure is statistically infrequent  This isn’t enough, however, to define what is abnormality o You can have statistically infrequent scores, but not have any abnormalities o Ex: If someone gets 100% on all their exams, their scores are statistically infrequent, but there’s nothing wrong with them o Thus, Statistical Infrequency is not a complete definition of what abnormality is – it’s only part of the definition Slide 17 – The Case of “The Men’s Room”  Tells story about Nick, a single, 26 yr old grocery clerk who complains to have “shit” o Sexually frustrated man who turns off the plumbing of the washrooms and waits for an attractive male to enter and take a shit o He then retrieves this shit and puts it in a plastic bag, which is then placed in warm water when he gets home. Plays with the feces which sexually excites him o Occurs about once a month and he finds it extremely pleasurable  2 way in which to define abnormality is Personal Distress o Is Nick’s behaviour causing him personal distress? (Anxiety, etc) No. He finds it pleasurable. o But we all agree that his behaviour is abnormal. So obviously something else is missing from the definition of Abnormality  Thus, 3 criteria by which to define Abnormality is Violation of norms o Is Nick’s behaviour in violation of a norm? Yes. o However, our definition of Abnormality is still incomplete because violation of norms is a relative concept  Ie What’s normative (normal) depends on current cultural norms  What’s a violation of a norm today may not be a violation of a norm a year from now  Ex: When the DSM was in its 3 edition, Homosexuality was considered a disorder, which it isn’t now o Since norms change, then the way we can apply this criteria to define abnormality may change as well o Also, to fulfill this criteria, the behaviour must make the person observing it feel anxious or threatened  Back to Nick though, is anyone observing his behaviour? Finding it threatening? No – So he’s not abnormal under this criterion either, but we still say his behaviour is abnormal. What’s missing?  Disability or Dysfunction is a 4 criteria which can be used to define abnormality o Important to note that impairment does not equal disability  Ie You can be depressed, or anxious, or nervous (impairments) but if they do not affect your ability to engage in daily activities, then they do not indicate a disability  However, if these impairments result in, say, an inability to go to school, go to work, care for children, THEN it becomes abnormal, or of clinical concern  Some people in the class, for example, may be feeling depressed but they’re still attending lecture. So they have the impairment (depression), but it’s not disabling them o Says this is an important criteria that he’ll talk about a lot o So is Nick disabled by his behaviour? No. He’s still fully able to engage in daily activities. So another criteria is needed  Unexpectedness is a 5 criteria which is used to define abnormality o Under this criterion, can we define Nick’s behaviour as abnormal (Finally!) o He takes someone’s feces home and masturbates with it. Pretty unexpected (Well that escalated quickly) o However, consider the definition of Unexpectedness: When the disability or distress associated with the behaviour are unexpected  Ex: If there’s a really rich man but he’s constantly worried about having enough money to the point that he can’t work, this is Unexpected  There’s this irrational thought process that’s just abnormal  Nick doesn’t feel distressed during the behaviour so he doesn’t fully fall under this criteria either (Dammit!) Slide 19  Thus, the take home message from all of these criteria is that none of them are complete  Because the field is continually evolving, not possible to offer a simple definition of abnormality that captures it in its entirety  Important to consider that no two patients are the same o They may have behavioural similarities which allows us to reliably diagnose them with the same disorder, but there are so many grey areas that it’s impossible to have two ppl who are identical Slide 22 – History  Back in the day, before scientific inquiry, many would guess in what to attribute supernatural things to o Ie Hurricanes, Tsunamis, etc would be blamed on things like Gods who are trying to punish us for some reason. No such things as science  Back then, when anything was abnormal, we’d blame it on Gods or Demons o Ex: If ppl walked around talking to someone to isn’t present, we’d attribute it to the mind being possessed by a demon  Thus, the logic of removing the abnormality was Trepanning: drill a hole in the person’s head, somewhere the demon can escape from o Idea was to make the mind/body as uncomfortable a host as possible  Ie these people would also forced to drink all kinds of nasty things, they’d freeze the person close to death, anything to make the spirit want to leave the body Slide 23 – Dark Ages and Demonology  Abnormality was attributed to person being a witch  Prof says he loves the image on the slide because it’s the first psychological test for abnormality o What they would do is if someone was accused of being a witch, they would put the accused at the end of the plank and (try to) drown him/her.  If the person drowned, they were deemed to be  If they survived, assumption was they must be possessed because they had to have supernatural powers to survive that  Survivors were then taken to the middle of town and were beheaded...LoL. o So basically, back then, abnormality = death Slide 24  He notes that he’s just making a story out of the history; much more to all of this in the textbook  As time went on, they realized they didn’t have enough planks for these people, so what to do with all of them? Couldn’t just kill them all based on such crude tests like Trepanning.  Decided to put these people in asylums until they could figure out what to do with them  It would be your worst nightmare to be in a mental institution during these centuries Slide 27  You can see how negatively abnormality was looked upon in the 19th century by taking a look at the names of the Asylums Slide 30 th  Video to show us how deplorable the treatments were e
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