Class Notes (838,076)
Canada (510,662)
Psychology (7,785)
PSYB32H3 (614)


6 Pages
Unlock Document

Konstantine Zakzanis

CH. 2: PARADIGMS AND CULTURAL FACTORS Paradigm: set of basic assumptions, general perspective, defines how to conceptualize/study/think about a subject, gather/interpret data THE ROLE OF PARADIGMS - Kuhn subjective factors and limitations in our perspective on the universe = conduct of scientific inquiry - Paradigm: conceptual framework/approach within which scientists work, outline universe of scientific inquiry. Specify problems scientists will investigate, how they investigate; intrinsic part of science; vital function of rules to be followed; basis of definition/collection of data, affect interpretation of facts - 4 major types of paradigms: biological, cognitive-behavioural, psychoanalytical, and humanistic-existential - Psychodynamic and humanistic-existential paradigms have become less influential - 2 influential paradigms: the diathesis-stress and bio-psychosocial – basis for integrative approach THE BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM - Biological paradigm continuation of somatogenic hypothesis; mental disorders caused by biological processes; aka medical model/disease model - Study of abnormal behaviour is linked historically to medicine - Medical illnesses differ but share characteristic that some biological process is disrupted/ not functioning  biological paradigm - Biological paradigm; dominant in Canada and elsewhere from late 1800s until mid 20 Cth - Hall’s gynecological procedures; treat “insanity” in women from BC; “insanity when Ego is controlled by influence from a diseased periphery nerve tract or center”; removal of ovarian cysts/entire ovaries was employed as treatment for melancholia, mania, delusions CONTEMPORAY APPROCHES: o Psychopathology caused by disturbance of biological process; 3 areas of research 1. BEHAVIOUR GENETICS:  Genes: carry genetic information (DNA) passed from parents to child  Study of individual differences in behaviour partly due to differences in genetic makeup  Genetic makeup (inherited genes) is genotype; unobservable, fixed at birth  Phenotype observable, behaviour, characteristics (anxiety) changes over time, product of interaction between genotype and environment; clinical syndromes fall into this  Predisposition (diathesis) may be inherited but not the disorder itself  Study relies on 4methods to uncover whether a predisposition for psychopathology is inherited: family member comparison, twin comparison, investigation of adoptees, linkage analysis  Family method – genetic predisposition among family members, # genes shared is known  Share 50% genes = first-degree relatives of that person. 25% < = second degree relatives  Starting point is collection of sample with diagnosis n questiost index cases/probands  If genetic predisposition to disorder being studied is present, 1 -degree relatives of index case should have disorder at a rate higher than that found in the general popu.  Twin method, monozygotic (MZ) twins(identical) dizygotic (DZ) twins (fraternal) are compared  Use diagnosed cases, disorder in other twin? concordant= similar diagnostically  MZ concordance rate is higher than DZ rate, characteristic studied is heritable.  Genetic interpretation of data from twin studies - equal environment assumption; environmental factors partial causes of concordance are equally influential for MZ /DZ pairs; does not mean environments of MZ and DZ are all equal; assumption applies to factors that are plausible environmental causes of psychopathology  Stein 3 factors biasing heritability estimates violate of equal environments assumption, sex of participant, age assessed  Genetic factors determine extent to which person is to experience post-traumatic stress after assaultive trauma; study is st 1 to examine issue in non military, includes women; limited b/c researchers rely on self-report measures of trauma  Adoptees method study children w abnormal disorders adopted and reared apart from parents  Study of MZ reared apart is valuable; occurs rarely, little research to study psychopathology o MOLECULAR GENETICS: aim to specify gene/genes involved, functions of these genes  “Allele” Several DNA codings, same position/location on a chromosome. Genotype is set of alleles  “genetic polymorphism” variability in species; different DNA sequence can manifest in different forms in same habitat  Linkage analysis; studies families which a disorder is concentrated; collect diagnostic information, blood samples from affected individuals and their relatives; study the inheritance patters of characteristics whose genetics are understood or genetic markers  Association between OCD and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B receptor 1 (GABBR1)  Greatest success in identifying specific genes on chromosomes important in Alzheimer’s disease  Genetic linkage; adolescent/yadult indicated locus on chromosome 9 associated w risk of externalizing psychopathology  Researchers are hypothesize gene-environment interactions-a disorder/symptoms are joint product of genetic vulnerability and specific environmental experiences or conditions  Hayden; link among serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) genotype, development of cognitive vulnerabilities, stressful event, depression  Focus on gene-environment interactions is important in qualifying perceived influence of genetic factors o NEUROSCIENCE&BIOCHEM: neuroscience study of brain/nervous system; comes in different forms (cognitive, molecular, cellular)  Nervous system is composed of billions of neurons; each neuron has 4 major parts: 1) Cell body 2) Several dendrites (the short and thick extensions) 3) One/more axons of varying lengths (usually only one long/thin axon extending distance from the cell body) 4) Terminal buttons on the many end branches of the axon  Neurons stimulated at cell body/through dendrites, nerve impulse (change in electric potential of cell) travels down axon to terminal endings  Btwn terminal endings of sending axon cell membrane of receiving neuron is a small gap called synapse (impulse must bridge synaptic gap)  Terminal buttons of axon has synaptic vesicle (release molecules of transmitter substances, flood synapse, diffuse to receiving/postsynaptic neuron), small structures filled with neurotransmitters: chemical substances that allow a nerve impulse to cross synapse  Chemical membrane of postsynaptic cell contains proteins (receptor sites): specific neurotransmitters can fit into them  when neurotransmitters fit into receptor sites a message sent to post synaptic cell, messages can be excitatory (creation of a nerve impulse in postsynaptic cell) or inhibitory making the postsynaptic cell less likely to fire  Once sending neuron (presynaptic) has released its neurotransmitter last step is for synapse to be returned to its normal state. Not all the released neurotransmitter has found its way to postsynaptic receptors  Reuptake: process of remaining synapse to be broken down by enzymes,pumped back into the presynaptic cell  Key neurotransmitters:  Norepinephrine –neurotransmitter of peripheral sympathetic nervous system, involved in producing high arousal, in anxiety disorders  Serotonin (involved in depression) and dopamine (involved in schizophrenia) are neurotransmitters in the brain  GABA, inhibits some nerve impulses, may be involved in anxiety disorders  Maturational changes influence of neurotransmitter levels  Neurotransmitters synthesized in neuron through a series of metabolic steps beginning with an amino acid  Failure to pump left over neurotransmitter molecules back into presynaptic cell (reuptake) leave excess transmitter molecules in synapse brain enveloped in 3 layers of non-neural tissue, membranes referred to as meninges - Frontal lobe – front of the central sulcis (reasoning, higher mental processes, regulation of fine voluntary movement, movement in a band in front of the central sulcus, receipt of sensations of touch, pressure, pain, temp, body position from skin, muscles, tendons and joints in a band behind the central sulcus) - Parietal lobe – behind it and above the lateral sulcus - Temporal lobe – below the lateral sulcus (sounds) - Occipital lobe – behind the parietal and temporal lobes (vision) - Left hemisphere control R half of body because crossing over motor/sensory fibres; speech, analytical thinking in R-handed, some L - Right hemisphere controls L side of body, discerns spatial relations/patterns; involved in emotion and intuition - Interior of brain is white matter, large tracts or bundles of myelinated (sheathed) fibres that connect cell bodies in cortex with those in spinal cord and other centres lower in the brain - Centres are pockets of grey matter (nuclei) connect tracts from cortex with other ascending/descending tracts, and integrating motor and sensory control centres - 4 masses deep in the hemispheres called basal ganglia - Deep within brain are cavities called ventricles; continuous with central canal of the spinal cord and filled with cerebrospinal fluid 1) Diencephalon connected in front with hemispheres and behind with midbrain, contains thalamus and hypothalamus, both consisting of groups of nuclei. 2) Midbrain mass of nerve-fibre tracts connecting cerebral cortex with pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellum and spinal cord 3) Brain stem comprises pons and medulla oblongata, functions primarily as a neural relay station  Pons contain tracts that connect cerebellum with spinal cord and with motor area of cerebrum  Medulla oblongata serves as main line of traffic for tracts ascending from spinal cord and descending from the higher centres of the brain, maintains heart beat  Core of brain stem is reticular formation (reticulating activating system) important role it plays in arousal and alertness 4) Cerebellum has 2 hemispheres with exterior cortex of grey matter, interior of white tracts. Receives sensory information from inner ear and from muscles, tendons and joints 5) Limbic system has structures that are continuous with one another in lower cerebrum, developed earlier than mammalian cerebral cortex. Controls visceral and physical expressions of emotion/appetite (primary drives)  Important structures- cingulated, gyrus, stretching about corpus callosum, septal area (anterior to thalamus), hippocampus and amygdala BIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO TREATMENT: o Prevention or treatment of mental disorders should be possible by altering bodily functioning o Clear connection exists between cause of a disorder and its treatment o 1985 psychoactive drugs prescribed in US  Tranquilizers (valium) effective in reducing tension associated with anxiety disorders- stimulate GABA neurons to inhibit other neural systems that create the physical symptoms of anxiety  Antidepressants (Prozac) increase neural transmission in neurons that use serotonin as a neurotransmitter by inhibiting reuptake serotonin  Antipsychotic drugs (clozaril) treats schizophrenia, reduce activity of neurons that use dopamine as neurotransmitter by blocking their receptors  Stimulants (Ritalin) often used in treating children with ADHD, increase levels of several neurotransmitters that help children pay attention o Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) described having delayed onset. Treatment of depression with SSRIs rather than placebo is associated with clinical improvement by end of first week of use. Improvement continues at a decreasing rate for at least 6 weeks EVALUATING THE BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM: o Reductionism view that whatever is being studied can/should be reduced to its most basic elements o Extreme form, asserts that psychology, psychiatry and psychopathology will ultimately be nothing more than biology o Basic elements are organized into more complex structures/systems o Nervous system dysfunction is not always due to biological causes o Behavioural (learning) paradigm and cognitive- Psychological paradigms less influence today o Emphasize role of social factors, socio-cultural considerations and internal psychological processes o THE COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL PARADIGM THE BEHAVIOURAL PERSPECTIVE: o Psychologists from behavioural perspective view abnormal behaviour as responses learned o RISE OF BEHAVIOURISM: response to focus on introspection favoured by many in the field of human psychology, 1913 Watson promoted a focus on behaviourism from the work of psychologists who were investigating learning in animals  Behaviourism : focuses on observable behaviour not consciousness. 3 types of learning attracted research efforts (1) CLASSICAL CONDITIONG –Pavlov Studied the digestive system of a dog... within the experiment - Food powder Unconditional stimulus (UCS) and the response to it, salivation an unconditioned response (UCR) - Meat powder preceded by ringing of bell (neutral stimulus) sound of bell (conditioned stimulus, CS) elicit salivary conditioned R - Extinction refers to what happens to CR when repeated soundings of bell are later not followed by meat; fewer salivation CR gone - Watson/Rayner experiment discovered that classical conditioning can be used to install pathological fear - Possible association between classical conditioning and development of certain emotional disorders, including phobias. Continues (2) OPERANT CONDITIONING – Skinner operant conditioning; applied to behaviour that operates on the environment - Reformulated law of effect, shifting focus from linking of stimuli and responses to relationships between responses and consequences - Stimuli do not get connected to responses as they become the occasions for responses to occur, if past they have been reinforced - Concept of discriminative stimulus: external events that tell an organism that certain behaviour, follow certain consequences - Distinguished 2 types of reinforcement that influence behaviour: - 1. Positive reinforcement strengthening of tendency to respond positive reinforce (water deprived bird repeat behaviour when water) - 2. Negative reinforcement strengthens response by removal of aversive event - electric shock; Negative reinforcers - Argued that freedom of choice is a myth, all behaviour is determined by reinforcers provided by environment - Can produce abnormal behaviour. Aggression is often rewarded (3) MODELLING – learning often goes on even in absence of reinforcers - Various learning or modelling – may explain the acquisition of abnormal behaviour - Children of parents with phobias or substance-abuse problems may acquire similar behaviour patterns, through modelling CANADIAN CONTRIBUTIONS - Bandura 4 key processes in observational learning: (1) attention (noticing models behaviour) (2) retention (remembering models behaviour) (3) reproduction (personally exhibiting behaviour) (4) motivation (repeating imitated behaviours if they received positive consequences) - Cognitive-regulation theory (social-cognitive) concept of human agency and self-efficacy: individual’s perceived sense of being capable - Self-regulation: multi-stage process involves self-observation, self-judgment by comparing personal achievements and behaviours with standards and goals, and self-response in the form of self-reinforcement and praise or self-punishment and criticism o BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY: new way of treating psychopathology, based on classical and operant conditioning to alter clinical problems  Behaviour modification therapists who employ operant conditioning as a means of treatment  Attempt to change abnormal behaviour, thoughts, feelings by applying in a clinical context methods used discoveries made by experimental psychologists in their study of both normal and abnormal behaviour  4 theoretical approaches in behaviour therapy: modelling, counter-conditioning, exposure application of operant conditioning  Cognitive behaviour therapy is often considered a fourth aspect of behaviour therapy (1) COUNTER CONDITIOING – relearning achieved by eliciting new response in presence of a particular stimulus - A response (R1) to a given stimulus (S) can be eliminated by eliciting a new response (R2) in presence of that stimulus - Behaviour therapy – systematic desensitization; a list of feared situations is created, starting with those that create the lest anxiety - Exposure therapy is a form of cognitive intervention that specifically changes the expectancy of harm - Aversive conditioning - a stimulus attractive to the client is paired with an unpleasant event, i.e. a drug that produces nausea. Employed to reduce smoking and socially inappropriate desires - Operant conditioning is often used on children with autism, mental retardation, aggression – unlearning the behaviour COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE: cognition – groups together mental processes of perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, judging, and reasoning o Cognitive paradigm focuses on how people structure experiences, make sense of them, relate their current experiences to past o Learner fits new info in organized network of accumulated knowledge schema/cognitive set. New info associated with schema by person o Psychiatrist Aaron Beck developed cognitive therapy (CT) for depression based on idea a depressed mood is caused by distortions in way people perceive life experience- therapy tries to persuade clients to change opinions of selves and way in which they interpret life o Albert Ellis –emotional reactions caused by internal sentences people repeat reflect unspoken assumptions irrational beliefs about what is necessary in meaningful life  Rational-emotive behaviour therapy aim to eliminate self-defeating beliefs through a rational examination of them  People interpret environment which sometimes cause emotional turmoil o Therapists who use Ellis’ ideas differ on how they persuade clients to change their self-talk; some argue with clients and tease them. Other
More Less

Related notes for PSYB32H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.