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Abnormal Psychology Lecture 2.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Abnormal Psychology: Lecture 2  Paradigm- a set of basic assumption that a clinician will make in order to conceptualize or study a subject or patient. How to gather and interpret relevant data. o Psychiatrist come from biological paradigm, where as a psychotherapist will come from a behavioural of humanistic paradigm o Four paradigm (kind of five) o Biological Paradigm  Mental disorders from biological antiseed  Behavior genetics- one approach in which we research a type of disorder/study of individual difference in behavior that is attributed to difference in genetics. Genotype vs phenotype- Genotype is the genetic concept from parents that you can’t see, but the phenotype is the individuals observable behavioral characteristics. Phenotype is a product of genotype and environment.  Disorders are not inherited- except huntington’s disease, but the genetic predeposition gives you a greater risk for these disorder  Family Method, Twin Method (MZ- 100% and DZ-50%) twins, Adoptees method  Those related to someone through first degree to schizophrenia have a 10% chance instead of 1%. Index is whoever has that chance.  In twins, when both have schizophrenia they are concorded. If twins have a greater monozetic concordance than a dizygotic concordance, then the disease in related to genes.  Linkage analysis- Looks for large collection of individuals within a family that have a particular disorder where they looks for biological of genetic markers such as blood tests or urine samples.  Biochemistry  Neurotransmission vs Reuptake (Watch videos)  Structure and Function of the Human Brain  Cortical (outer Layer) Brain Surface – important in higher order disorders o Frontal lobe  Left side- oncoding memeory and right side relates to retrieval and Broca’s  Executive functioning such as motor movement, planning, inhibition, making decisions, and emotions  Lesion of right can give rise to manic episodes and lesion of left can give rise to depressed like states such as apathy o Parietal lobe- touch and visual spacial  Difficulty understanding movement – left side  Visual special neglect- right side, where they neglect the left side of visual o Occipital lobe- vision o Temporal Lobe- language  Right side- comprehension for non verbal sounds  Hippocampus connects the two sides  Subcortical (inner) Brain Surface- involved in movement disorders  Not two unique structures, works together  CT scans or MRI or functional neuroimaging (PET SCAN)  Biological Paradigm Approaches to Treatment: Psychoactive Drugs  Anxiolytics- benzodiazepines – for anxiety, sleep, phobias and pain, Xanax, Klonopin, Valium, Ativan  Antidepressants- depression- SSSRI, Tricyclic Antidepressants, Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor, for pain, dementia and eating disorders  Antipsycho
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