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PSYB32 - 9.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 - 9 Substance dependence  Common effect to all drugs is that they are initially pleasing, and despite of the disastrous after affects we continue to take them because we like the way it feels  Oxford psychologist found that the instances of substance abuse sky rocketed during the teen and adult year and fund the for the majority of persons who display substance abuse stop when they are about 30 years of age -at that age real life responsibilities start to take shape around the person’s life and suddenly there is a lot more or them to lose and more consequences -argues greatly against the neurobiological paradigm, it has some sort social behavioural etiology  Substance dependence is a lot more worse and serious than substance abuse  According to the DSM dependence is diagnosed with at least three of the symptoms: -tolerance, withdrawal, uses more and for a longer period of time than intended, recognition of excessive use of substance, much of the person’s time is spent trying to obtain substance or recover from its effects, substance abuse continues despite problems, person gives up or cuts back participating in many activities because of substance -tolerance is indicated when firstly larger doses of the substance are needed to produce the same effect, as well as the effect of drug become less if the usual amount is taken -withdrawal are the negative physiological and psychological symptoms as a result of reducing substance use or not taking it or the person might use the substance to cure the withdrawal symptoms -most people who have substance dependence will not admit it readily, hardest to do but first step to rehabilitation -when tolerance and withdrawal is present they are said to have an addiction qualifier  Substance abuse is less severe than dependence  To qualify for a diagnosis they have to display one of these symptoms: failure to fulfill major obligations, exposure to physical dangers, legal problems, persistent social or interpersonal problems  There is no withdrawal or tolerance in substance abuse problem  Substance intoxication also qualifies - acute affects that the substance may cause, Alcohol Abuse and Dependence  Alcoholism is the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide, and costs are very high with respect to burden on health care  When somebody is dependent on alcohol as opposed to alcoholism there is more disability in daily life  Delirium tremens (DTs) psychotic like state as the person’s blood alcohol level drops = disorientation, memory problems, hallucinations, terrified = transient  Polydrug abuse, in the case of alcohol 80 -85% of alcohol dependence and abuse will also use another drug, most likely cigarettes because alcohol and nicotine are synergistic  Abuse Life time prevalence is 17.8%, one year 12.&%, prevalence of dependence is lifetime 12.5% and 3.8% for one year  Prototypic alcoholic pt is white young single male and is well off financially  There is no single pattern of abuse or dependence 1 PSYB32 - 9  Short term effects of alcohol you become more social, less anxious, more jocular, get hot, dizziness  Alcohol is biphasic: can act as a stimulant as first, but when the blood alcohol level stops rising and starts to decrease it becomes a depressant  Some moderators of what you may feeling when drinking alcohol  Short term effects of alcohol is based on five factors: level of concentration in the blood stream, amount ingested n a particular period of time, presence or absence of food in your stomach, size and weight of person, efficacy of the liver and how well can it breakdown the alcohol  Long term effects of alcohol: malnutrition (alcohol provides empty calories) Wernicke’s Kronoff is an alcohol dementia characterized by anteograde amnesia and they confabulate to make up lost time, syrosis of the liver, hypertension and elevated blood pressure, capillary hemerrgaes and usually the capillaries of the nose are the first to go Marijuana  Effects of marijuana: are dose dependent, psychological effect in small doses: time goes really slowly, might feel more relaxed and sociable, giddy  Effects of large dose: hallucinations, fatigue, paranoia, rapid shifts of emotion, dull attention, fragmentation of thoughts, difficulty processing information, cognitive impairment  active ingredient is THC, originally the marijuana plant was used for ropes and clothing  Some of the ways you can use marijuana can be smoking eating drinking  Somebody that has psychological distress will have heightened perceptions when taking marijuana if they are suceptible to other mental conditions (i.e. paraniod, anxious)  Somatic effects: red eyes, itchy eyes, increased appetite, dry mouth, decrease lung function =marijuana is a vasoconstrictor  Marijuana has therapeutic effects with respect to managing pain, chemotherapy pt with respect to nausea and helping with appetite, often prescribed to pts with epilepsy and multiple sclerosis and HIV/AIDS Sedatives  Also used with respect to slowing down body’s activity and response  Important with respect to pain prescription  Opiates come from the Opium plant , and three main are morphine, heroine, codeine  Induces sleep, reduces pain and produces a state of euphoria, drowsiness, loss of coordination, vivid hallucinations  Heroine also goes to produce a rush of warmth, sense of ecstasy, shedding all negative felling, gives persons great self confidence  Heroine is extremely addictive and tolerance and withdrawal is almost immediate, often after one use = effects last 6-8 hours , after these 6-8 hours f withdrawal symptoms there is an additional 10-15 days of twitching and cramps, hard pressed to lie on a bed, chills, sweats  Withdrawal of heroine is characterized by the worst case of the flue with fever, sweats, insomnia, shills, vomiting, runny eyes and nose  Barbiturates, benzodiazepines (valium) are other common sedatives Stimulants  Will increase alertness, motor activity, reduce appetite, make the person feeling energetic and outgoing, and incredible feelings of self conference, feel like have lots of energy  These drugs are extremely addictive and tolerance develops very fast 2 PSYB32 - 9  Amphetamines: Benzedrine, Dexedrine, methedrine  Caffeine  Cocaine: increases sexual desire and produces feelings of self confidence, well-being and indefatigability  Effects of these drugs do not last very long and substance abusers spend most of the time chasing after the drug  Overdosing effects of stimulant drugs such as cocaine can be life threatening to the point of death  Withdrawal symptoms include chills, nausea and tremors, along with hallucinations and delusions  Delusions are often characterized by a severe paranoid state = and since cocaine is one of the substances that cause DA increase in the brain it has the ability to produce schizophrenic like symptoms  Chronic users will experience change in personality characterized by dis executive problems, cannot make decisions, irritably, memory problems, social problems, cognitive problems  Cocaine in the earlier days was used for toothache drops, voice and throat relaxer etc LSD  D-lysergic acid diethylamide  Produces hallucinations  This drugs has been known to be used in cases to study schizophrenics  It is a drug hat increases the DA level in the brain and the person will produce vivid hallucinations MDMA  ecstasy has become the second most used recreationally used substance after marijuana  It started as an appetite suppressant during WWI  It started being used in couples therapy from 50s-70s  Became a popular choice
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