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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 on paradigms

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Konstantine Zakzanis

 Paradigm: conceptual framework or approach within which a scientist works. Can have a profound impact on the patient. E.g. a person with major depressive disorder will get different advice from a humanist than from a psychiatrist. Humanist will not give any labels, and will accept the person for who they are, maybe suggest therapy. Psychiatrist will diagnose major depressive disorder and would treat the disorder with psychopharmacology. Patient will respond to one approach better than the other.  19 century most popular paradigm was psychoanalytic therapy  Paradigms shift over time  Biological approaches are now more popular due to changing technology.  Paradigms differ in different places in the world, different cultures.  Biological paradigm: o Behaviour genetics study of individual differences in behaviour that are attributable to one’s genetic makeup  Genotype versus phenotype genotype is our total genetic makeup; includes all of our unobservable genes at birth (fixed). The fixed genes are always there, however it depends on many different factors whether or not it is actually expressed. E.g. we are all born with white skin, however it changes with environment. Phenotype is the totality of observable behavioural characteristics which changes over time. Phenotype is the product between the genotype and its environment.  Family methodsearching for family member of probands (person with a disorder) that share genetic overlap with proband. Typically looking for first degree relatives as they share 50% of their genetic makeup. So we can understand prevalence of disorder. If there is an increased incidence, there is a genetic predisposition to disorder. E.g. schizophrenia  Twin method  Monozygotic (MZ) twins share 100% of genetic makeup. In conditions with twins, if one twin has schizophrenia, chances of other twin having it are 50%. Even if one twin has a disorder, it is not necessary that the genotype is expressed in the other twin, it may never be expressed.  Dizygotic (DZ) twins  Adoptees method hard to find twins that were separated at birth. Advantageous to the researcher, as twins are not raised in the same environment as parents who have disorder.  Neurotransmission common neurotransmitters that we will study are dopamine, serotonin, and endorphins. Transmission of impulses across a synapse.  Reuptake the reabsorption by a neuron of a neurotransmitter following the transmission of a nerve impulse across a synapse. A lot of disorders show disturbance in regards to reabsorption  Cortical structures of brain are responsible for higher order cognition (ability to concentrate, learn, retrieve, planning, etc.)  Subcortical structures of brain are within the brain, below the surface of the cortical structures. Controls sleep, wakefulness, movements. Movement disorders like Parkinson’s disease.  Frontal lobes executive functions: memory, motor movements, planning, speech o Right side responsible for retrieval. Implicated in different types of psychotic disorders, i.e. mania. o Left side responsible for on coding, learning, taking information in  Temporal lobes language, forming and storing memory (hippocampus) o Right side o Left side  Parietal lobes sensation, calculation, visual-spatial abilities, coordination, visual construction o Right side o Left side  Occipital lobes vision  Biological paradigm approaches to treatment: psychoactive drugs o Anxiolytics treats anxiety, stress, sleep disorders, depression, OCD  Benzodiazepines  Alprazolam (Xanax); clonazepam (klonopin); diazepam (valium); lorazepam (Ativan) o Antidepressants treat depression, anxiety disorders, OCD, eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia), personality disorders, and pain or somatoform disorders. Different types of antidepressants work on different types of neurotransmitters.  Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)  Celexa; Prozac; Zoloft  Tricyclic antidepressants  Elavil; amitryptine  Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOIs)  Nardil; parnate o Antipsychotics treats psychosis, i.e. schizophrenia. Sometimes given after severe brain injury, sometimes in context of dementia, i.e. Alzheimer's.  Phenothiazine  Thorazine o Psycho-stimulants treat attention deficit disorders. Narcolepsy, i.e. Alzheimer's, dementia. Depression patients. Traumatic brain injuries. Healthy people use it for recreation; leading to abuse of drug.  Amphetamines  Ritalin; Aricept  Psychoanalytic paradigm o Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) argues that psychopathology results from unconscious conflicts. To fix a psychopath, bring these conflicts to consciousness. o Structure of the mind  Id all unconscious  Pleasure principle seeks immediate gratification at all costs, no respect for social norms. When it can’t get what it wants, produces anxiety in individual.  Primary process thinking fantasies, illusions.  Ego primarily conscious  Reality principle  Secondary thinking  Super ego ultimately decides between id and ego. o Defense mechanisms a way to deal with anxiety that id creates. An unconscious strategy.  Repression—putting unacceptable impulses or thoughts into unconscious  Denial—disavowing oneself of a traumatic experience, pushing it into unconscious, i.e. woman who goes through rape  Projection—attribute external aspects or characteristics or desires that we have on to other
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