Paradigm: conceptual framework or approach within which a scientist works. Can have a
profound impact on the patient. E.g. a person with major depressive disorder will get different
advice from a humanist than from a psychiatrist. Humanist will not give any labels, and will
accept the person for who they are, maybe suggest therapy. Psychiatrist will diagnose major
depressive disorder and would treat the disorder with psychopharmacology. Patient will
respond to one approach better than the other.
19 century most popular paradigm was psychoanalytic therapy
Paradigms shift over time
Biological approaches are now more popular due to changing technology.
Paradigms differ in different places in the world, different cultures.
o Behaviour genetics study of individual differences in behaviour that are attributable
to one’s genetic makeup
Genotype versus phenotype genotype is our total genetic makeup; includes
all of our unobservable genes at birth (fixed). The fixed genes are always there,
however it depends on many different factors whether or not it is actually
expressed. E.g. we are all born with white skin, however it changes with
environment. Phenotype is the totality of observable behavioural characteristics
which changes over time. Phenotype is the product between the genotype and
Family methodsearching for family member of probands (person with a
disorder) that share genetic overlap with proband. Typically looking for first
degree relatives as they share 50% of their genetic makeup. So we can
understand prevalence of disorder. If there is an increased incidence, there is a
genetic predisposition to disorder. E.g. schizophrenia
Monozygotic (MZ) twins share 100% of genetic makeup. In conditions
with twins, if one twin has schizophrenia, chances of other twin having
it are 50%. Even if one twin has a disorder, it is not necessary that the
genotype is expressed in the other twin, it may never be expressed.
Dizygotic (DZ) twins
Adoptees method hard to find twins that were separated at birth.
Advantageous to the researcher, as twins are not raised in the same
environment as parents who have disorder.
Neurotransmission common neurotransmitters that we will study are dopamine, serotonin,
and endorphins. Transmission of impulses across a synapse.
Reuptake the reabsorption by a neuron of a neurotransmitter following the transmission of a
nerve impulse across a synapse. A lot of disorders show disturbance in regards to reabsorption
Cortical structures of brain are responsible for higher order cognition (ability to concentrate,
learn, retrieve, planning, etc.)
Subcortical structures of brain are within the brain, below the surface of the cortical structures.
Controls sleep, wakefulness, movements. Movement disorders like Parkinson’s disease.
Frontal lobes executive functions: memory, motor movements, planning, speech o Right side responsible for retrieval. Implicated in different types of psychotic
disorders, i.e. mania.
o Left side responsible for on coding, learning, taking information in
Temporal lobes language, forming and storing memory (hippocampus)
o Right side
o Left side
Parietal lobes sensation, calculation, visual-spatial abilities, coordination, visual construction
o Right side
o Left side
Occipital lobes vision
Biological paradigm approaches to treatment: psychoactive drugs
o Anxiolytics treats anxiety, stress, sleep disorders, depression, OCD
Alprazolam (Xanax); clonazepam (klonopin); diazepam (valium);
o Antidepressants treat depression, anxiety disorders, OCD, eating disorders (anorexia,
bulimia), personality disorders, and pain or somatoform disorders. Different types of
antidepressants work on different types of neurotransmitters.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Celexa; Prozac; Zoloft
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOIs)
o Antipsychotics treats psychosis, i.e. schizophrenia. Sometimes given after severe
brain injury, sometimes in context of dementia, i.e. Alzheimer's.
o Psycho-stimulants treat attention deficit disorders. Narcolepsy, i.e. Alzheimer's,
dementia. Depression patients. Traumatic brain injuries. Healthy people use it for
recreation; leading to abuse of drug.
o Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) argues that psychopathology results from unconscious
conflicts. To fix a psychopath, bring these conflicts to consciousness.
o Structure of the mind
Id all unconscious
Pleasure principle seeks immediate gratification at all costs, no
respect for social norms. When it can’t get what it wants, produces
anxiety in individual.
Primary process thinking fantasies, illusions.
Ego primarily conscious
Reality principle Secondary thinking
Super ego ultimately decides between id and ego.
o Defense mechanisms a way to deal with anxiety that id creates. An unconscious
Repression—putting unacceptable impulses or thoughts into unconscious
Denial—disavowing oneself of a traumatic experience, pushing it into
unconscious, i.e. woman who goes through rape
Projection—attribute external aspects or characteristics or desires that we have
on to other