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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 on Research methods

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis
Semester
Fall

Description
 Reliability and validity in assessment o Reliability—consistency of measurement  Test-retest reliability—related to how a test looks over time if you run it twice. It should have the same scores if the same individual takes the test twice. Sometimes we don’t want test-retest reliability to be high, i.e. a depression level test after treatment.  Alternate-form reliability—certain tests are influenced by practice effects, therefore we measure the same construct with different content. Reliability between scores between two different versions of test.  Internal consistency reliability—relates to actual content of test. Patient’s test scores should be reliable and consistent across the entire test.  Inter-rater reliability-- how reliable two different clinicians will look at a patient and come up the same results. o Validity—whether or not the test is measuring what it is supposed to measure  Content validity—test must have enough content on it to completely measure what it is supposed to measure  Criterion validity—the test converges with another test that measures the same thing.  Concurrent validity—e.g. comparing one test with another concurrent test. If both tests show the same result, test has criterion validity  Predictive validity—whether or not the test predicts something about the actual person. E.g. if they score high on the test for depression, do they look depressed? Does the test predict real world situations?  Construct validity—actually capturing some sort of construct that is unique to a group of people. I.e. giving people with depression a test and people without depression a test. People with depression should all score higher than regular people.  Psychological assessment o Clinical interviews—can tell you more about the patient than the actual test, but tests are needed to give a solid, more scientific proof.  Characteristics of clinical interviews  ‘How are you doing?’  ‘What are your concerns?’  ‘With the problems you are describing, does it implicate any difficulties in your everyday life?’  ‘How are your sleep and eating patterns?’  ‘How is work and leisure life?’  ‘What is your family history of medical disorders or diseases?’  ‘What other medical conditions do you have?’  ‘Do you think you have a problem?’  ‘How frequent are symptoms?’  ‘What medications/treatment are you on?’  ‘Any history of hospitalization?’  ‘How long have symptoms been present?’  ‘Age?’  ‘Cultural factors? Social factors? Economic factors?’  ‘Any illegal substances?’  Behavioural observations, appearances. o Avoidance of questions o Twitching o Eye contact (sometimes) o Behavioural observations should be observed before patient sees doctor. o Discrepancies in stories of patients  Structured/semi structured interviews  Behavioural observations  Psychological tests o Screening measures—sometimes used diagnostically by patients  Beck scales—anxiety, depression inventories.  Problems: patient may be having symptoms at a specific time, but if they take the test again, test-retest reliability is low. I.e. prof having anxiety during lecture, but not later on when he’s at home. We never rely on these test results on their own, clinical interview is needed. o Personality inventories  Personality assessment inventory/personality assessment screener  Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 (MMPI-2) o Projective measures  Rorschach inkblot test  Thematic apperception test (TAT) o Specific inventories  Pain inventories (e.g. P-3; Multidimensional Pain Inventory)  General personality inventories o Omnibus measures  Extensive measures that attempt to cover a wide range of clinical pathology  Typically self-repot measures (patient fills it out on their own).  Contain clinical measures and validity measures  Can directly assess clinical psychopathology from that profile (MMPI-2) o Personality assessment inventory  PAI is a 344 item self-report questionnaire that attempts to understand an individual’s personality traits and characteristics  Renders diagnostic considerations based on the DSM IV  Diagnostic considerations involve Axis I and Axis II disorders  Provides clinical and validity scales  Has screening measure to make assessment more efficient, 22 items vs. 344  Test is normed on people with various psychopathology disorders.  People’s results are compared to people with a disorder and test will try to match the person with a person who has psychopathology.  Projective techniques—less scientific, used to explore hypotheses in counselling and not for diagnostics. o Projective hypothesis  The notion that highly unstructured stimuli are necessary to bypass defenses in order to reveal unconscious motives and conflicts  Therapists from psychoanalytic paradigms would use this. o Projective techniques  Tests of personality that involve use of unstructured stimulus materials. Use of such materials maximize the role of internal factors such as emotions and motives in perception o Rorscha
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