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PSYB32H3 (614)


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Diane Mangalindan

Psyb20h3 lec 1 9/12/2013 5:42:00 PM Development  Philippe Aries o Argued that ppls view of childhood and children is progressive and evolving with demands of society th Children in the 18 century  More and more research shows childhood is an imp part of life Continuous vs discontinuous  Some researchers argue development is continuous and others discontinuous  In any given period kids will be engaged in all diff kinds of strategies  Its all about the perspective taken  These changes happen thru transition, neurological or environmental o Basically it‟s the change that helps us see whats happening psychologically to the child Nature vs. Nurture  Some say development is all about genetics while others say its all about the environment  Modern scientists view it as an interaction with both factors Passive vs active child  Passive being how they brought up  Active child participates in the development, asking questions Person vs Situation  Person and situation play a role in diff types of behavior at diff places o i.e. aggressive child make seek outlets where he can display it join hockey team vs working a library Universal vs Relativism  Children worldwide follow the same ways of life vs children in diff places learn differently (culture) o Contemporary psychologists view both as being interactive What literature says  Some milestones achieves earlier or later Theory vs Scientific Theory  An account of physical changes that occur during development  Both provide account to psychological changes o 1) able to organize in coherent manner o 2) be able to generate testable predictions or hypotheses What makes a good scientific theory?  Parsimony – it can explain a set of observations in the simplest way possible  Falsifiability- its found to be false  Heuristic value- not limited to where its found Psychoanlytic Theory st  One of the 1 ppl to highlight that early events are affected as ppl become adults  The developing person is made out of 3 parts o Id + ego + superego o Id: pleasure o Ego: rational, about satisfying needs and getting pleasure, but goes by it in a more socially acceptable manner o Superego: conscience, internalizes all the values u learned  5 stages o oral: bite, suck, put everything in their mouth, because they experience satisfaction during that time o anal: potty training, starting to learn to satisfy their needs o phallic: diff between male a nd fathers attraction for mothers and fathers  they can overcome when they identify their appropriate parent o latency: sexual urges repressed, go to peers, develop attractions and friendships o genital: sexual urges are brought on again Behaviourism o john Watson o classical conditioning  idea that person will learn certain behavior and learn certain responses to a certain stimulus  proved through pavlovian theory  little alert experiment  learned fear response to a white rabbit he became afraid of it when it was presented with a loud noise John Watson  Classical conditioning o Idea that person will learn certain behavior and learn certain responses to a certain stimulus o Proved through pavlovian theory o Little alert experiment  Learned fear response to a white rabbit, he became afraid of it when it was presented with a loud noise Skinner  Operant conditioning  Focused on the consequences: children are engaged to follow certain behaviours if its followed by certain rewards  Less likely to do a behavior if its frowned upon Albert Bandura  Behavioural theory: learned by serving other people and imitating them  Bobo doll experiment: thrown a bobo doll around and kids imitating it Jean Piaget  Discontinuous but active participants o Children are active participants of their developments  Sensorimotor: using their known knowledge and incorporating it to what they do o i.e. calling a male “daddy” eventually start to make categories  Preoperational: start using symbols and referring to everything with objects  Concrete operations: learn about conversation, known that an object will still keep fundamental properties when it changes, logical reasoning Ethological and Evolutionary  View development to occur within a particular concept  Diff types of behaviours have an adaptive value  Critical period: sensitive period: period in person‟s life hwere you are ore welcoming to take a personal skill, language skill, certain period in life where you build your certain values and engage in behaviours  Evolutionary o Developing skills that have survival value o Some believe that boys are more rough and females more roleplaying activities Sociocultural and Ecological Systems  Sociocultural o Learning with interaction o Diatic conversation and interaction with 2 ppl o i.e. peer tutoring, learning to read and write from an older child  environmental st o 1 level microsystem: main contacts that child lives in and directly interacts with family, teachers, peer o mesosystem: actual interaction within these systems o not everything is directly connected to the child o exosystem: parents workplace (impacts main contact which then will later impact the child) o macrosystem: where all the systems exist o chronosystem: what moves something over, period of time that people go through things, can be non- normative: only some ppl can experience o anything that happen in one system can bring about changes to another Major Issues in Methodology  Determining the interest of study: target population  Researchers chose smaller group to rep the population: sample Methods of gathering information  Ask child: challenging, may conduct in a more fun and with simpler questions  Ask ppl about the child  Observe the child o Prob: typically u will ask individuals to recall past events and memory cannot be reliable source, can be bias o Solution: recall only recent events  Direct observation: o When the researcher comes in and observes what happens in the setting on children o Less likely to be bias o Presence of researcher can be problematic: aware that you are being observed  Correlational vs experimental o Examines relationship between variables  i.e. TV and physical activity o researchers have to have validity of the experiment example similar to real life Changes over Time  CROSS SECTIONAL o Examining different groups of participants of different ages o i.e. 2, 3,4,5 year olds measured together o advantages: good if large span of ages o disadvantages: big diff with groups, example selected more aggressive 5 yr old  LONGITUDINAL o Just following a single group and measuring them over a certain time and waiting to grow older than measuring again and again  Advantages: dealing with same people over time  Disadvantages: takes a very long time, need lots of funding  Participant attrition: you lose participants along the way  SEQUENTIAL o Compare different age groups and follow them over time  Not only grab info for short period but follow changes they overcome  Look at comparative vs cross-cultural on slide General problems in Developmental Research  Ethics and deception: board hat has guidelines to how to manage participants o Place where informed consent takes place o Incomplete disclosure only told certain information and some are purposely mislead due to research  Researcher effects: most of the time unknowingly impact in the research o Demand characteristics  Unknowingly provide cues to how to perform  Memory biases: reconstruction o People tend to bias their recollection of events  Inadequate definition of concepts o Need to define their concepts o Sampling error:  Recruit smaller group from bigger population, may not be the exact mini group o Overgeneralization:  As a researcher you try to apply your findings in situation that aren‟t the same  i.e. original population is utsc, cannot make bias generalizations about other unis lec 2 9/12/2013 5:42:00 PM Heredity and environment - midterm 1: 60-80 questions - 65 % text and 35 % lec material - application questions - heredity and environment makes humans different Genotype vs phenotype  Set of genes inherited from parents = genotype  Observable and measurable expression = phenotype o Product of genotype and environment interacting 2gether o Examined and measured by psychologists Genetic Transmission  Ovum + sperm = 23 pairs of chromosomes  Process where ovum/female germ cell +male germ cell (sperm) = new organism called “zygote” o Each cell of new organism contains 23 paris of chromosomes or 46 total chromosomes  Chromosome: o Thread like structure found in nucleus of cell  Made of genes and eventually genes make up person o Genetic info = DNA  binds chromosomes together Genes and DNA - genetic info contained in deoxyribonucleic acid - steps of ladder are the chemical bases (4)  order is important for determining type of of organism and special characteristics - Dna dictates formation of protein which are used for various developmental processes Where does variability come from?  Genetic info thoroughly shuffled from one another  Each gene contains 2 alleles (alternative forms of genes o One from dad, one from mom o For every particular characteristic u can one of 3 possible combos of alleles  2 are homozygous (AA or aa) and 1 is heterozygous (Aa)  Heterozygous can lead to 3 outcomes o Blending  mixing of skin colours o Codominance  Expression of both  They don‟t actually blend , i.e. blood cells  mom = A, dad = B, your blood type = AB  Individual Codominance – expression of only one; dominant over recessive Sex chromosomes  2/46 or 1 of the 23 pairs  XX = female  XY = male  X chromorosomes carries more genes; automatic expression of whatever genes they code for  i.e. common occurrence of X linked disorders Variability: Additive  Multiple genes/alleles interact with one another through 2 processes o Additive: certain characterisitics/trains (stature or human IQ) produced by multiple genes (polygenes) interactiving with other genes to produce an outcome o i.e. dad = randomhalf number of genes, might contain half of tall genes o mom = random half short genes o you would be the sum of that Variability: Configural  Some traits can only come out of certain configurations of genes  Emergenic trait (emergenesis) o Production of a trait that has an emersion property from the configuration of polygenes o Complete different trait from combo of genes o Result from configuration of genes, you do not pass on the configuration intact from the parent -> offspring o Monozygotic: same genes, therefore same configuration o DZ: not the same configuration Facial Beauty  Attractiveness of one facial feature depends on other features  No gene that codes for facial beauty, just coding for facial features Genius  Karl Gaz o Mathematical genius o Uneducated parents o Being a genius is emergent, comes from the configural interactions of polygenes  Do not transfer to family members directly Chromosome Abnormalities  Turner syndrome (XO) o Lack of X chromosome in females o Not develop secondary sex characteristics; abnormal development of reproductive system therefore permanent sterility (cannot have children)  Klinefelter‟s syndrome (XXY) o Males; extra X chromosome o Hip and breast development  Trisomy 21 o DOWN SYNDROM
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