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Lecture 3

PSYB20 - Lecture 3 Notes

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Diane Mangalindan

Perceptual & Motor Development Lecture 3 - September 18th, 2013 Hello baby! - When babies are born, they come equipped with capacities that aid in adapting to their environment. These capacities are organized and meaningful. Babies have a number of reflexes. Some are valuable for survival. Whereas, others disappear within the first year of life. Reflexes - Ensuring survival: rooting, sucking, eye blink, withdrawal Less obvious value: toe grasp, stepping Reflexes’ value - Reflexes are important in assessing baby’s central nervous system. Serve as identifiers of developmental problems and other abnormal functions. NBAS - Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale (Brazelton, 1988). Measures 20 different reflexes - sucking, rooting, etc. Measures six other clusters of behaviours: Habituation, orientation, motor performance, range of state, regulation of state, and autonomic regulation. Scale important for helping parents to properly handle babies (Britt & Myers, 1994). Infant State - Recurring patterns of arousal. Points to organization and predictability. Required in understanding behaviour. Incorporated or controlled for in various research studies. Infant Crying - Communicate distress and needs. Important for parental care. Various needs  various types of crying. Types of Crying - Pain Angry Basic Wiesenfeld et al. (1988) - Sexual dimorphism – maternal instinct. Examined parental responsiveness to familiar and unfamiliar infants. Assessed: (a) Ability to identify baby cry (b) Autonomic responses (c) Subjective responses Wiesenfeld et al. (1988): Results - Mothers exhibited more defensive reactions than fathers. Infant crying cont. - Cooperative breeding theory – not specific to maternal care. Time spent caring with infant important. Gustaffson et al. (2012) - Compared paternal and maternal responsiveness. Controlled for amount of time spent with baby. Parents showed high accuracy. Time spent with baby was important factor. With less than 4 hours, recognition decreased. Swaddling - van Sleuwen et al. (2007) found that:  Calms infants and induces sleep.  Beneficial for preterm infants.  Can be harmful when misapplied. Proper instruction and information are needed. Sensory & Perceptual Development Sensations & Perceptions - Babies also have systems for sensations (what stimuli sensory receptors detect) and perceptions (interpretations of these stimuli). Research Techniques Focus on Habituation Visual Preference - Robert Fantz (1963). Depends on infants’ tendency to habituate. Looking at one stimulus over another = perception of difference & preference Preference Method - Minimal response required. Basis of discrimination is hard to pinpoint. Eye-movement recording and design. Audition - Prefer human voices (Aslin, 1987) and infant-directed speech (Trainor, 1996). Lullabies are universal (Grieser & Khul, 1988; Tomasello & Mannle, 19845). Trehub et al. (1993) – identify infant-directed song: (a) Expt. 1 – Singers and listeners from N. America (b) Expt. 2 – Singers from India; listeners from India & N. America
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