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PSYB20 - Lecture 1 Notes

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Diane Mangalindan

Developmental Psychology: Theories & Methods Lecture 1 - September 4, 2013 Development vs. Child Development  Changes that occur in various aspects of a person's lifetime (from moment of conception to moment of death).  Physical, cognitive, emotional and social capacities.  Changes that occur during childhood. Philippe Aries Centuries of Childhood (1960) - First book on childhood Children in the 18th Century Short life expectancy Miniature adults, worked in factories Major Themes in Child Development Continuous vs. Discontinuous - Some argued that development was gradual, others argued people developed in steps. Nature vs. Nurture Passive vs. Active Child Passive - environment shapes the way they are. Active - the child shapes the way they are (asking questions). Person vs. Situation A shy person would be shy regardless of the situation you are in. Shy at home, at school and in the workplace. Universal vs. Relativism Universal - happens the same way anywhere in the world. Relativism - it's the culture they live in. What Literature says?  Kipsigis (Western Kenya) parents engage in a sitting ritual with their babies (Super, 1976).  East Asian parents less likely to place infants on the floor for free play (Super, 1976).  North American parents put infants to sleep on their backs, rather than on their stomachs (Davis et al., 2008).  Cultural differences in motor development. Theory What Art Thou? Theory vs. Scientific Theory  Set of concepts that describe and explain an aspect of experience or phenomenon.  A scientist's pubic statement that accounting for a specific of his or her study.  Describes the psychological changes or development over time.  Dual purpose. What makes a good scientific theory?  Parsimony - it can explain an observation in the simplest way possible.  Falsifiability  Heuristic value Major Theoretical Perspectives; Psychoanalytic Theory Personality = Id + Ego + Superego - (Sigmund Freud) Psychosexual development:  Oral (birth - 1 year)  Anal (1 - 3 years)  Phallic (3 - 6 years)  Latency (6 - 12 years)  Genital (> 12 years) Behaviourism Classical conditioning: Learning from repeated presentation of familiar & unfamiliar stimuli. - (John Watson) Little Albert experiment Operan
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