PSYB20 - Lecture 8
Lecture 8: Family, Peers, & Play
November 13, 2013
Parents and parenting
WHAT IS SOCIALIZATION?
Ensures a child’s standards (behaviour & attitudes) conform as closely as possible to society, so the child
is able to function well in it.
1) Dynamic and mutual shaping of behaviours and thought.
2) Child plays an important role in shaping standards.
3) Goal: Child functions well as social being.
How? Compliance and self regulation
BRONFENBRENNER’S ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM
Systems can vary in their impact to development.
Bidirectional and dynamic changes.
DEVELOPMENTAL NICHE MODEL (HARKNESS & SUPER, 1994)
Interdependency among systems – changes in one can lead to changes in others, and so on.
Socialization agents are products of socialization themselves.
Socialization is lifelong.
End goal is internalization of standards.
FIRST COMES PARENTS…
Control – when extremely controlling, prevents autonomy development. When control is
restrained, autonomy development is supported.
Emotionality – when parent is warm and loving, child will likely maintain parent’s approval.
When parent is cold and rejecting, loss of approval is not relevant. DIMENSIONS AND STYLES
Low Uninvolved Authoritarian
High Permissive Authoritative
PERRY ET AL. (1981)
Examined 7-year olds.
Miniature bowling game that involved tokens and donation box.
Three conditions – reasoning provided:
1) Power assertive: “You have to share because it is expected of you...”
2) Inductive: “Sharing would make other people happy…”
3) Neutral appeal: “Give up one of every two tokens received…”
PERRY ET AL. (1981): RESULTS
of TokensPower Inductive Neutral
Inductive, other-oriented reasoning produced greatest amount of sharing from children.
…THEN COME SIBLINGS
More relatable than parents.
Resources for learning.
“School of mirrors”
THE GOOD Parent substitutes.
Sibling caretakers (Weisner, 1977).
Moderating effect under stressful events.
GASS ET AL. (2007)
Examined whether quality of sibling relationship impacted child adjustment to stressful event.
Sibling relationship; mother-child relationship; child adjustment (internalizing & externalizing
behaviours); maternal reports of stressful life events (e.g., illnesses, deaths, separation).
Less likely to exhibit externalizing behaviours (e.g., aggression) with affectionate sibling.
Over and above maternal effect.
Sibling conflicts are frequent and emotional (Perlman & Ross, 1997).
Sibling status variables (e.g., gender, birth order) can also impact the conflicts between siblings
Learn aggression through imitation.
Destructive sibling conflict may play role in development of conduct problems (Garcia et al.,
Sibling rivalry – competition between siblings.
SIBLING RIVALRY: IMPORTANT VARIABLES
Change in family dynamics.
Sex of siblings.
Parent-child relationship (Levy, 1934; Pfouts, 1976).
1) Family stories – transfer values that are at the heart of the family and family values
2) Family rituals – set the platform with events and traditions that become routines that family
Offers a mini window of society.
Any individual who is of equal status with respect to certain variables (e.g., age, education,
Friend, colleague, acquaintance.
Offers an equal perspective.
Share common goals and interests, problems and challenges, and