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Lecture 5

PSYB20 - Lecture 5 Notes

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Diane Mangalindan

Beyond Piaget: Information Processing and Neo-Piagetian Research Lecture 5 - October 9th, 2013 Information Processing Approach -  Changes occur in the strategies which change cognition.  Information from environment is processed, not just responded to. Mind is a Computer -  System that processes information.  Cognitive development in the “hardware” and “software” components of the mind.  Limitations in the amount and nature of information processed.  Focus in problem-solving strategies people make – reflection of fundamental processes. Encoding: Decoding: Taking in and storing information. Meaning is deciphered. Processed by series of systems. Compared to previously stored information. Recoding: Output: Relevant information becomes mental Produces solution. representation. Typically measurable/observable response. Simple or complex forms. Attention -  Child controls what to attend to from information he perceives.  Impacts behaviour and understanding.  Control of attention develops.  Selective attention – direct attention to relevant and ignore irrelevant information.  Devise plan of action – reflective control. Atkinson & Shiffrin’s (1968) Store Model -  Easy to follow and examine.  Unclear concepts – memory capacity. Craik & Lockhart (1972) Levels of Processing -  Information of retention is function of depth of processing.  Hierarchy of processing from superficial to deep leads to memory traces. Mickey Mouse;  Superficial: Perceptual characteristics  Middle: Phonemic characteristics  Deep: Semantic features Information Processing Approach - Advantages:  Quantitative and more systematic account.  Processing in various cognitive areas.  Development in processing that lead to individual differences. Weaknesses:  Cognition is not a fragmented process.  Computer analogy is limited.  Other factors may play a role in performance. Neo-Piagetian Approach Robbie Case - Four stages in cognitive development. Executive control structures are developed at each stage: a) Sensorimotor structures b) Inter-relational structures c) Dimensional structures d) Vectorial structures Stages build on each other. Neo-Piagetian Research Piagetian throwback: Conservation -  The question of “Which is bigger?” can be ambiguous.  Phenomenal judgment vs. objective evaluation  Construe question to mean phenomenal judgment. Lumsden et al. (1968) -  Examined kindergarteners and adults on a conservation task (i.e., conservation of size).  Dimension determines the “bigger” size.  Presented with paired stimuli and asked to select which of the two was bigger. Lumsden et al. (1968): Results - 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Vertical Dimension (%) PerSelecting Figure with Greater Kindergarten Adults Participants  “Bigger” based on vertical dimension, ignoring other dimensions that convey size difference.  Difficulty in attending to the relevant dimensions or ignoring irreleva
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