Class Notes (811,039)
Canada (494,452)
Psychology (7,646)
PSYB32H3 (614)
Lecture 9

PSYB20 - Lecture 9 Notes

9 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Diane Mangalindan

PSYB20 - Lecture 9 Morality and Gender November 20, 2013 OUTLINE  Three aspects of morality  Theories of moral development  Gender vs. sex differences  Gender stereotypes & Backlash effect  Theories of gender development MORAL DEVELOPMENT 3 ASPECTS OF MORALITY MORALITY: BEHAVIOURAL  Good, socially acceptable actions.  Internally generated.  Independent from self interest.  Methodological implications. BEHAVIOURAL MEASURES  Production of prosocial behaviours  Resistance to temptation  “Forbidden toys” test PARKE (1967)  Examined 6- and 7-year olds  Forbidden to play  Will child play or not?  Mean “temptation” scores calculated. PARKE (1976) 6 5 4 3 2 1 M0an Number of "Temptations" Boys Girls Child All children were unable to resist temptation, with boys more tempted than girls. MORALITY: EMOTIONAL  Feelings on moral and ethical decisions.  Empathy  Guilt  Projective test  Criticism – indirect measure of emotion  Direct measures of emotion? EISENBERG ET AL. (1988) Examined preschoolers and second-graders. 3 emotionally-arousing films: a) Boy & girl in thunderstorm b) Girl & her pet bird c) Girl attempting to walk Heart rates, facial expressions, & verbal reports. EISENBERG ET AL. (1988): RESULTS MORALITY: COGNITIVE  Knowledge of ethical rules and moral judgments.  Two leading theorists are Piaget and Kohlberg. PIAGET’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT  Moral development follows a three-stage developmental sequence.  Moral maturity = social rules & equality  Justice  Focus on rules of games and judgments on transgressions. MORAL DEVELOPMENT  Pre-moral stage: No rules  Moral realism: Inflexible rules  Morality of reciprocity: Intentions & equalitarianism MEASURES a) Rules for games (e.g., marbles) Adherence to rules & understanding of origin and nature of rules. b) Moral dilemmas Objective ------> subjective evaluations KOHLBERG’S THEORY Moral maturity = justice Cognitive skills important Moral development in three levels: a) Pre-conventional b) Conventional c) Post-conventional MORAL DILEMMAS  Famous example: Heinz’s story  Yes/no judgment & reasoning  External sanctions -------> Inner conscience CAROL GILLIGAN  Focused on male adolescents  Women < Men  Moral maturity  Moral orientation  Males = rights orientation  Females = response orientation WALKER ET AL. (1987)  Interviewed family triads (mother, father, & child).  Hypothetical and real-life dilemmas.  Assessed moral orientation. WALKER ET AL. (1987): RESULTS  Children’s moral dilemmas on friendship, honesty, and fighting.  Adults’ moral dilemmas on family- and work-related issues.  Gender differences.  Age differences. WALKER ET AL. (1987): RESULTS 60 50 40 30 20 Male Orientation (%) Female Mean Percentage of Moral 0 RightsResponseRights Response Hypothetical Real life Dilemma  Males took on the rights orientation.  Females took on the response orientation.  Both orientations present for males and females. GENDER DEVELOPMENT SEX IS NOT GENDER Biological and physiological differences between men and women. BRAIN LATERALIZATION Greater lateralization in men’s brains than women’s brains (Halpern, 2000). Evidence? a) More pronounced deficits among brain-damaged male patients. b) Greater brain activity in corresponding cognitive task among men (Shaywitz et al., 1995). SEX ROLES Behaviours and activities that men and women engage in that are directly relate to sex differences. GENDER IS NOT SEX  Gender – behaviours and activities that society deem appropriate for men and women.  Gender stereotypes.  Stereotypes can be in line with sex and sex-role differences. GENDER ROLES  Degree to which a person adopts socially-defined behaviours and activities.  Reflections of gender stereotypes.  Variability among men and women to how much they adopt gender prescriptions.  Gender typing – adoption of gender roles. GENDER LABELS  Baby “X” studies  Experimentally label child as boy or girl.  Examine adults’ reactions and behaviours. CONDRY & CONDRY (1976)  Adult males and females.  Overall intensity rating of infant’s emotion – pleasure, anger, and fear.  “David” or “Dana” CONDRY & CONDRY (1976) 10 8 6 4 0 Mean Ratings Boy Angerear Angerar Angerar Angerar Girl Pleasure Pleasure Pleasure Pleasure Teddy J-B Doll Buzzer Bear Conditions Gender label influenced adults’ interpretations of infant behaviour in ambiguous situation. GENDER STEREOTYPES USEFUL  Process information and situations.  Within a short period of time. BREWER (1988) Against stereotype? H
More Less

Related notes for PSYB32H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.