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Lecture 10

PSYB20 - Lecture 10 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Diane Mangalindan

PSYB20 - Lecture 10 Lecture 10: Developmental Psychopathology November 27, 2013 OUTLINE  Definition  Models  Classification systems  Examples DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOPATHOLOGY  Examination of children’s behaviours that lead to abnormal problems.  Examination of how normal development can impact abnormal trajectories. THEORETICAL MODELS NATURE MODEL  Children are predisposed to behave the way they do.  Inherent personalities emerge throughout development.  Temperament – tendencies to exhibit certain personalities based on bodily functioning. HUMORS CONTEMPORARY NATURE MODEL  Disorders are primarily genetically determined (e.g., Down syndrome).  Disorder trajectories determined by genetics (e.g., schizophrenia). JARVIK ET AL. (1973)  Extra Y chromosome found among notorious criminals with homicidal tendencies.  Dominant features associated with extra Y chromosome is excessive aggression.  Not consistently found and environment is a major contributor.  Most important implication is inherent limitation. MEDICAL MODEL  Abnormal disturbances result from afflictions, illnesses, or diseases.  Treated with proper medication.  Focus is finding the cause of illness (e.g., infections, parasites, cortical damages).  Four types of mental diseases: mania, melancholia, dementia, and idiocy.  Caused by various environmental agents.  Advocated for humane  treatment of mentally ill patients.  Moral treatment. PSYCHODYNAMIC MODEL  Psychological disorders are expressions of conflict.  Conflicts are within the individual, wholly or partly unconscious, and externally manifested. Abnormal behaviours are once ordinary behaviours. Age-inappropriate expression. Two major psychopathologies: a) Fixation b) Regression  Young child operates on immediate gratification.  Society hinders instant satisfaction all the time.  Result is conflict.  Such conflict is beneficial to child.  Balance is key. If not, pathology occurs.  Unconscious conflicts, not symptoms, are important. BEHAVIORAL MODEL  Psychological symptoms are learned and shaped by environment.  Focus on determining environmental conditions that support behaviour.  Key method is functional analysis.  Basis of clinical psychology. ECOLOGICAL/SYSTEMS MODEL  Child’s pathology result from systems of interpersonal interactions.  Context and culture are important.  To address pathology, need to address the system in which the child exists. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS OF CHILD PSYCHOPATHOLOGIES EMIL KRAEPELIN Classified according to cause: a) Exogenous disorders b) Endogenous disorders DIAGNOSTIC STATISTICAL MANUAL (DSM)  Nomenclature – system of scientific classification to group objects or natural phenomena.  Patterns of behaviours.  Descriptive system.  Increase use widespread agreement. DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGIES CLOSER LOOK BEHAVIOUR DISORDERS Place heavy toll on children and others. Three types: a) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) b) Conduct disorder c) Oppositional disorder ADHD 3 clusters of symptoms: a) Inattention b) Hyperactivity c) Impulsivity Popular diagnosis in 1990’s. Under arousal of the brain (Barkley, 1996). Common treatments include stimulant drugs (e.g., Ritalin) and behavioural therapy. CONDUCT DISORDER Chronic patterns of unconcern for others. Four behavioural subtypes: a) Aggression to people and animals b) Destruction of property c) Deceitfulness or theft d) Serious violation of rules CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT IMPAIRMENTS. Childhood-onset vs. adolescent-onset types. Childhood-onset has strong persistence into adulthood. DSM-5 includes callous-emotional (CU) presentation: a) Lack of remorse or guilt b) Callous-lack of empathy c) Unconcern about performance d) Shallow affect OPPOSITIONAL DISORDER  Recurrent patterns of defiant and hostile behaviours towards authority figures.  Temper tantrum
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