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Lecture 4

PSYB20 - Lecture 4 Notes

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Diane Mangalindan

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Cognitive Development: Focus on Piaget Lecture 4 - October 2nd, 2013 Cognition - Mental acquisition and processing of knowledge. Jean Piaget -  Baby biography  Theoretically guided  Naturalistic & experimental  Small sample size  Lack of reliability  Heavy on motor behaviour  Longitudinal & natural settings Development through Piaget’s Eyes -  Changes occur in the structure of thinking processes.  Reflected in learning.  Accomplishments and errors are equally important. Development through Piaget’s Eyes -  Changes occur in the structure of thinking processes.  Reflected in learning.  Accomplishments and errors are equally important. Cognitive Development -  Increasing complexity in reasoning.  Scheme/schema – cognitive structures to organize behaviours  Initially based on overt actions on objects  Organization – combining schemata  Adaptation – assimilation & accomodation  Complex schemata that become internalized. Stages of Cognitive Development - Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Sensorimotor Period -  Reflexes → symbolic thought  Allows for fantasy play and deferred imitation. Preoperational Period -  Characterized by symbolic function.  Animistic  Egocentric Pufall (1975) -  Examined kindergarten-aged children.  Spatial perspective task – copy location and orientation of objects from model o o  No rotation > 90 rotation >180 rotation Concrete Operations Period -  Logical reasoning  Transitive inferences – if A > B and B > C, then A > C.  Conditional reasoning – “if A, then B” a) if A true, then B true b) if A is false, then B can either be true or false.  Syllogism Kuhn (1977) -  Grades 3, 5, and 7.  Presented with simple and complex syllogistic items. Kuhn (1977): Results 100 80 60 40 Simple Responses (%) Complex Percentage of Correct 0 3 5 7 Grade Level Wavering (1989) -  Graphing – demonstrate relationships between variables  Graph numbers and describe the process.  Grades 6 to 12.  Increasing levels of reasoning: Category 1 = preoperational Categories 2 to 5 = concrete operations Categories 6 to 9 = formal operations Wavering (1989): Results - 100 80 60 40 1 2 to 5 20 6 to 9 0 Percentage of Students8 9 10 11 12 Performing at Category (%) Grade Level  Significant differences in responses between students from the middle school and high school.  Middle-school students operated at concrete operations level of reasoning. Formal Operations Stage -  Flexibility in reasoning.  Represented ideal stage.  Present in all normal adults, but impacted greatly by environment (Piaget, 1972). DeLisi & Straudt (1980) Three formal operations task.  Three groups
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