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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 Notes

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Mark Schmuckler

Developmental PsychologyLecture 9Psychoanalytic Approach to Attachmentheavy emphasis that attachment is a result of what mom does We blame mom for screwing up but then these 2 approaches dont account for what child brings to the attachmentrelationshipCognitive developmental approach has little to say abt which pple one will become attached to mom dad Instead what this approach does is that it reminds us of wholistic nature of development The attachemnt relationship depends on the childs level of cognitive understanding or cognitive development According to this approach if yure gunna be attached to a certain person yu have to be able to have certain skills such as discriminating btwn mom from other pple mom from dad You have to recognize that mom continues to exist even if u cant see her So the child has to havecertain level of object permanence According to this view its not an accidnet that attachment begins to appear 7 to 9 months of age 810 months is when we develop object permanence The implication here is that there is relationship btwn development of attachment and object permanence Empirical evidence supporting this theory Object permanence skills correlates with how attached child was to his or mom Kids who score lower on object permanence test dont seem to be upset when mom leaves So thos with higher cognitive level are more attached to momEthological Approach to AttachmentEthological view is the most widely accepted theory of attchment Initially inspired by imprinting in birds young birds would imprint on their mother if they were exposed to mother during a certain period of time they develop following behaviourimprinting is a highly evolutionary adaptive behaviour cuz it keeps baby bird in close contact with momJohn Bowlby modern day father of attachment theory He was originally trained as a psychoanalyst and when he started his work he wanted to update psychoanalytic viewHe started to view infant and mother in evolutionary terms What was the evolutionary significance of the significance of the attachment He realized that infant is biolgically prepared to form this relationship and is an active contributor to the attachmentThe infant like any other animal can exhibit certain behaviours which will ellicit parental careTheres a repertoire of behaviours clinging to parent sucking crying brings parents to close proximity w infantAll of these behaviours bring infant w close proximity w mom making sure that infant is safe and fed when hungryDifferences btwn animal imprinting and infants attachment For animals they have to see mom at a critical period In contrast can form attachments throughout their livesIn attachment behaviours theres a huge range of variability in behaviours talking to mom following mom around Playing with mom Relationship to mom is not fixed as opposed to birds It changes in infants As child gets older the nature of the attachment relationship changes Infant can tolerate separation from mom because of a belief that mom will always returnThis notion that attachment relationship can change leads to an important questionHow does attachment actually workWe have a preattachment phaseBirth to 6 weeks in agegentically determined reflex behaviours sucking cryingThis increases chance of survival by keeping mom closeBabies show all sorts of instinctive orientation towards other humans
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