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PSYB32H3 (614)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

Developmental trends in Gender Typinggender concept when does the child understand their genderknowledge does not gendergender concept discriminate males vs females 6M of age can discriminate differenceby speech frequency 1Y infants can discriminate photos of men and womenform categories put pictures of male faces with sounds of their voices same with femalesin the 1Y develop intermodal constancy children know to associate females and males with mommy and daddy23Y children can label themselves as a boy girlhavent developed gender constancy dont understand biological sex is unchanging 35Y children still confused over gender constancy 57Y UNDERSTAND gender is not going to change57Y conservation skillschildren understand gender constancy for themselves first then samesexed others finally then for other sex childrengender role stereotypestoddlers acquire sex role stereotypes about the same time they are aware of gender constancy25Y 25Y have some knowledge of gender role stereotypeschildren who know about these stereotypes are those that can correctly label pics of other children as boysgirls knowledge is related to ability to discriminate genders elementary school childrendiscriminate boysgirls in terms of psychological dimensionslearntraits that characterize their own gender ANDtraits of the opposite gender10Y gender role stereotypes are well formed how serious are gender role prescriptions Children are really strict about it 37Y want ppl to behave according to these stereotypesrules that cannot be violatedrigid in the knowledge and ideas about these stereotypesgender related issues are important bw ages of 37Y time when children classify themselves as boys vs girls children become flexible 810Y less humanistic about genderfine for the girlboy to pursue a crossgender activitybecome flexible for what they think is possible BUT not necessarily approves of it ex wont be friends with a boy that wants to wear a dressTOLERANCE IS HARD on boys who behave like girlssuggests there is more pressure on boys to conform to gender role standards gendertyped behaviourswhen children favour same sex activities than those that favour the opposite sex sex appropriateness of play who the child plays with and the toys they play with seen before gender identity child understands that particular toys are more appropriate for boys vs girls12Y boys play with trucks girls play with dollschildren refuse to play with cross gender toys2Y girls prefer samesex playmates 3Y boys prefer samesex playmates 45Y reject playmates of opposite sex67Y children play 10x more time playing with samesex than opposite sex1011Y prefer samesexmore social competent those who violate it found to be less popular and rejected if have oppositesex playmatesTHESE GENDER BOUNDARIES DECLINE WHEN CHILDREN HIT ADOLESCENCEdifferences in play behavioursmark gender segregationSTUDY put toddlers in dyads and look at the nature of play behaviour children showed with different toys RESULTS social behaviour directed towards playmates variedboys likely to direct social behaviour towards boys girls likely to direct social behaviours towards girls in mixed dyadsgirls backed away from boysboys scaring girlsHAS TO DO WITH THE NATURE OF PLAY BEHAVIOURTheories of gender typingBiological approachbiological factors predispose malesfemales to adopt gender consistent sex rolesgenetic and hormonal differences are responsible for sexlinked characteristicsone difference females are heartier more sensitiveboys rough tumble playmales and females are programmed for activities sexlinked constitutional factors and the environment the way parents act towards boys vs girlsinteract with the type of behaviour children receive has to do with parentchild interaction Freud psychoanalytic approach social theorysocial and biological factorssexuality was innate for the childeveryone was born bisexual inherited traits from both parents gender identity caused by identification from biological parentoccurs 36Yidentification emulate another person typically of the same gender boys and the opedius complex boy falls in love with mom rival for momevidence children acquire sexual stereotypes that same age Freud predicts 23Y complexes
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