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N/Ach1 notes

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Mark Schmuckler

Chapter 1Child development field of study that seeks to account for he gradual evolution of the childs cognitive social and other capacities first by describing changes in the childs observed behaviors and then by uncovering the process and strategies that underlie those changes Themes of DevelopmentOrigins of human behaviorPattern of developmental change over timeIndividual and contextual factors that define and direct child developmentAspects of developmentbiological cognitive linguistic emotional and social Origins of Human BehaviorArnold Gesellcourse of development was largely predetermined by biological factors o Maturation genetically determined process of growth that unfolds naturally over a period of timeJohn B Watsonbiological factors placed no restrictions on the ways that the environment can shape the course of a childs development o By properly organizing the environment he could produce a genius or a criminalModern developmentalists explore how biological and environmental factors or nature and nurture interact to produce developmental variations in different children Pattern of Development Change2 basic patternsContinuous process whereby each new event builds on earlier experiences development is a smooth and gradual accumulation of abilitiesno abrupt shiftsDiscontinuous process likens development to a series of discrete steps or stages in which behaviors get reorganized into a qualitatively new set of behaviors Factors Affecting Developmental ChangeMany developmental psychologists adopt the interactionist view point stressing the dual role of individual and contextual factors Theoretical Perspectives on DevelopmentStructuralorganismic o Freud was interested in emotions and personallypsychodynamic theoryDevelopment which proceeds in discrete stages is determined largely by biologically based drives shaped by encounter with the environments and through the interaction of components of personality id ego superego
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