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PSYB32H3 (614)

Chapter 3

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 3 - Classification & Diagnosis The official diagnostic system widely used by mental health professionals is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (the DSM), which is currently on its 4 edition (the DSM-IV) ABrief History of Classification People realized different illnesses required different treatments th There was a lot of diversity of classification in the end of the 19 century, but no universal classification system Development of the WHO and DSM Systems In 1969, the WHO published a new classification system that was more widely accepted The WHO classifications were just lists of diagnostic categories; the actual behaviour or symptoms that were the bases for the diagnoses were not specified DSM II and the British Glossary of Mental Disorders provided some crucial information, but did not specify the same symptoms for a given disorder In 1988, work began to create the DSM IV, and in 1994 it was published The Diagnostic System of the AmericanPsychiatric Association (DSM-IVand DSM-IV-TR) Definition of Mental Disorder The DSM recognizes that 9K0 9072 mental disorder is problematic and that no definition adequately specifies precise boundaries for the concept A mental disorder, according to the DSM, is conceptualized as a significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individualand that is associated with present distress or disability or with an increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability or loss of freedom ,9.,39-0,30[50.9,-O0and culturally sanctioned response to an event (ie. The death of a loved one) ,9.,39-00;L,39-0K,;L4:7, nor conflicts that are primarily between the individualand society Five dimensions of classification rd Several major innovations distinguish the 3 version from subsequent versions, perhaps the most sweeping change being the use of multiaxial classification, whereby each individual is rated on 5 separate dimensions, or axes Axis 1: All diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mentalretardation Axis 2: Personality disorders and mentalretardation Axis I and II compose the classification of abnormal behaviour Axis 3: General medicalcondition(s) This is important when considering medications for the patient Axis 4: Psychosocialand environmental problems (occupational, economic, interpersonaland family problems) Axis 5: Current level of functioning (socialrelationships, occupationalfunction and use of leisure time) Diagnostic Categories Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence: Intellectual, emotional and physical disorders usually begin in infancy, childhood or adolescence. Separation anxiety, conduct disorder (violate social norms repeatedly), ADHD, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders (include autistic disorders, a condition in which the individual has 1
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