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PSYB20H3- LECTURE 1.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20H3- DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY - Development: the systematic changes that occur in individuals between the moment of conception or the moment of death. These developmental changes follow a pattern - What is the science of development? Developmental science vs. developmental sciences - Interdisciplinary nature of the study of development. - Child development: all the changes that occur over the life span - Understanding the processes of human in animal development Child Development in Historical Perspective - Childhood in the Medieval Times (6 -15 centuries) - The view of children - The contradictory nature of childhood - Children wear loose comfortable gowns, playing games, looking up to adults, childhood was seen as different in relation to adults , teenagers were not fully mature th - By the 14 century you seen manuals , books that offered advice to parents about different aspects of childcare, healthcare, feeding , clothing and games - Laws that recognized that children need protection from people who could hurt them . Children were seen as vulnerable beings. - Religious writings had contradictory notions about the nature of childhood. Religious icons talking about children as being pure and innocent. - Children were seen as being possessed by the devil, with sin - Modern society views child hood as very important, children require attention , care , shelter from harm, (child centred) , all children are not exploited for financial gain , they do not have the responsibilities of citizenship in society, we view childhood as being important - Is this the way that children have always been viewed? By the 16 century (reformation) - The view of childhood became somewhat more negative, children were not seen as pure innocent creatures, but were BORN EVIL - Role were the parents was to civilize and to restrain the child - Began to see an emphasis on restrictive child rearing practices - Children began to be dressed less accommodating clothing (more stiff) adopt adult like postures - Keep them from following their evil natures. More acceptance towards violent behavior towards children - As the puritans immigrated from England to the US they brought with them that child rearing was the most important obligations of parenting - The child soul was tainted, and born with “original sin” you have to teach the child . See growth on the attempt to use reason to teach the child - Began seeing to teach the child the difference between right and wrong rather than beating them, had to teach them self control and self – reliance - Puritans began to adopt a moderate balance between permissiveness and severity - Child was forced to adopt such restrictions 17 century- new philosophies that emphasized a new notion - View childhood as more humane than those of the past - John Locke and British Empricists, the child could be reasonably viewed as a blank slate “tabula rasa’ children were not born evil. Children were born with nothing, no ideas, they were a blank slate and that all of the knowledge that they obtained was provided by EXPERIENCE - Parents needed to be rational tutors to their child and could mould the child in any way that they saw fit in relation to their child . - Uses appraise and awards to get children to do things o Rather than punishment or money - Very much opposed the notion of physical punishment associating school with being beaten - Treating children with kindness and compassion - See development as being a continuous process adult behaviours were gradually built up through warm , consistent teachings, by the parents - Tabula rasa lead to the importance of nurture or environment, the environment was one of the most powerful influences on the growth of the child - Development doesn’t have a single course, it has multiple courses, child is relatively passive in his/her development - The child is passive 18 century  Jean Jacques Rousseau - Child born with innate ideas and knowledge that unfolds naturally with age - Development proceeds through series of stages guided by inborn timetable - Child had an innate sense of right and wrong and had an innate plan for orderly and healthy growth - Child had an inborn moral sense and a unique way of thinking. Adults negatively affect the childs
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