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PSYB32-lecture 2.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32- Lecture 2  Biological paradigm- clinicians are often looking for a marker for different disorders  Behavioural genetics: study of individual differences in behavior that are attributable in part to differences in genetic makeup, in other words, our DNA  And the way in which we conceptualize our genetics is by either genotype or phenotype  Genotype is the total genetic makeup of an individual consisting of inherited genes that are unobservable; genetic makeup we are born with, and that doesn’t mean that it cannot change over time in respect to the phenotype which is the observable characteristics of a person  Interplay between development and psychosocial world a person lives in  Family method: is used to study a genetic predisposition among members of a family because the average number of genes by two blood relatives is known; great way of creating a quasi- experiment  First degree relatives- mom, dad  If a predisposition for mental illness can be inherited, a study of family should reveal a relationship between the number of shared genes and the prevalence of a disorder  Example, Schizophrenia- if mom and dad both have the disorder, then what is the chance for the child to have the disorder- 20%, an increase from 1% for a child with parents without the disorder (idiopathic)  Schizophrenia is not completely determined genetically, learned through the study of monozygotic (identical) twins  The other element involved is the environment  Adoptees method: used by biological clinicians to study a disorder when the twins are adopted and reared apart; a way of finding out the impact of environment  Concordant: when a set of twins both have an illness as opposed to disconcordant which is when a set of twins don’t share the illness (only one has it)  Huntington’s disease is the only disorder that we discuss in the class that has an entirely biological basis  Neurotransmission: substances or chemicals that allow the brain to talk to one another; a type of neurotransmitter is dopamine  Cortical structures are involved in high cognitive functions  Sub cortical structures are responsible for movement, basic processes such as breathing, sensation, perception, etc.; also contribute for higher order cognition, and the physical expression of emotion  Structure and function of the human brain:  Frontal lobes: important for judgment, being socially responsible, planning, decision making, keeping organized, left frontal side is responsible for speech; when left side is injured, patient may become depressed, show lack of motivation, apathy; when right side is injured manic-type or psychotic-like symptoms  Frontal lobes are also responsible for awareness of illness; term called anosognosia which means unawareness of illness  Frontal lobes are also responsible for memory; left side is particularly responsible for learning; right side is responsible for retrieval  Temporal lobes are important in memory as well; hippocampus consolidates what it is that you are trying to learn, takes that information that is being conveyed and places it along the cortex in a complicated manner, later to be retrieved if consolidated appropriately by the right frontal lobe  Temporal lobe is also responsible for comprehension; Wernicke’s area is responsible for comprehension and located on the left side  left vs. right side = verbal vs. nonverbal hemispheres  Parietal lobes are responsible for visual perceptual functioning, construction;  When left side is impaired, paraxia is a disorder when the patient has difficulty with the conceptualization of movement  When right side is impaired, visual neglect  Occipital lobes are responsible for vision  Biological paradigm approaches to treatment: psychoactive drugs  Anxiolytics: used for anxiety disorders and other disorders such as OCD, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s  Co morbidity: when the patient has more than one disorder present, which is why often drugs are prescribed with the type of specificity you would predict  Antidepressants: used for people with depression, also the primary drug for people with eating disorders  Also prescribed for people with traumatic brain injuries, substance abuse, OCD, and even personality disorders  Three main types of antidepressants: SSRIs (most common because they have the least number of side effects, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOIs)  Antipsychotics: mainly used for symptoms of psychosis; people with schizophrenia, demented illness once there are psychotic symptoms present, traumatic brain injury, even for depressive disorder  Psycho-stimulants: used to stimulate cognition and prescribed for disorders such as ADHD, Alzheimer’s disease (slows progression), students or athletes, CEOs  Psychoanalytic paradigm: father was Sigmund Freud, and he developed the structure of the mind  Id is responsible for our basic urges; completely unconscious, seeks immediate gratification, operates on the pleasure principle,  Primary process thinking- sometimes we cannot get what we want (fantasizing)  Ego is primarily conscious , it engages in secondary thinking, works within reality principle  Superego acts like the conscience of the person, the person who puts forth the rules and regulations; acts like an usher in the movie theatre  Defense mechanisms: things we do unconsciously to protect the ego from anxiety  Repression: most important defense mechanism because this is where a psychoanalyst is going to find their goals in treating a patient; when we push unacceptable impulses and thoughts into the unconscious  Freud and psychoanalysts believe that when we bring insight to repressions, and out of our conscious, it eliminates anxiety  Denial is when we disavow a traumatic experience of some sort such as being raped, and we push it into the unconscious  Projection is when we take attributions to an external agent that characteristics or desires that an individual possesses but cannot accept them into their own consciousness  Displacement is where we redirect emotional responses from a perhaps a dangerous object onto a substitute  Regression is the instance where one might resort to a behavioural pattern of an earlier age as a form of defense  Rationalization is when you invent a reason for an unreasonable action or attitude  Free association is a technique in which the client is instructed to say whatever it is that comes to mind without a
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