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Lecture 4

PSYB32- lecture 4.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32- Lecture 4  Assessment is important because it can tell one what is wrong with the patient (symptoms), also it can tell what is causing the symptoms, and finally how the symptoms can be improved  Psychologist will also evaluated the efficacy of treatment through assessment  Reliability and validity in assessment  Reliability: the consistency of the measurement; we measure it using correlation (stronger the correlation, the more reliable the test)  Test-retest reliability: the extent to which people being observed or tested on more than one occasion score in the same way  Inter-rater reliability: same observations by two sets of people looking at the same symptom  Alternate-form reliability: extent to which scores on two forms of tests are consistent (to ensure that a person does not simply remember the correct answers from a previous time)  Internal consistency reliability: items on a test are related to one another  Validity- a test cannot be valid unless it is reliable, it concerns the idea that does it fulfill its intended purpose? Are we actually measuring what we set out to measure?  Content validity: does the test adequately sample the domain of interest?  Criterion validity: evaluated by determining whether a measure is associated in an expected way with some other measure; if a test is able to predict some sort of future behavior that it can also be considered that it achieved criterion validity  Construct validity: relevant when we want to interpret a test as a measure of some characteristic or construct that is not simply defined  Clinical interview- questions are derived from a particular paradigm  Structured and semi-structured interview  Collateral interview- interviewing a spouse or child of patient to gain more insight due to feigning, unawareness, etc.  Psychologists employ psychological tests because they are more objective, and they provide a way of scientifically finding evidence  Psychological tests: standardized procedures designed to measure a person’s performance with respect to aspects of personality, thoughts, feelings, and behaviours  Standardized means that they have been normed  Three main types of psychological tests: personality inventories, projective measures, and specific inventories  Psychological screening measures are very limited because they don’t include validity measures ie. Indicators that patients are feigning  Tests also need to be considered for context  General personality inventories  Omnibus measures- contains measures to see if person is exaggerating, scales to tell if there is positive impression management  The personality assessment inventory (PAI)-  Norming: take test and administer it to a large population of normal people (people without disorders whatever that may be), then plot the scores  Process of norming allows us to interpret how abnormal a person’s test scores are on that test with a comparative group  Norms are stratified, collected not just in a general pop. But for various ages, gender, education so that when performance is compared to a norm, we look to see what someone of that age, education, and gender would also perform like  Major limitation of psychological testing at this point in time is race and culture  T-scores above 70 are considered abnormal because less than 2.14 of the normative group would achieve a score higher than a t-score of 70  Consistency is examined by omnibus measures to make sure a person actually answered questions and not just answer anything  A more sophisticated omnibus measure like the PAI or the MMPI will have similarly worded items but phrased differently, so sometimes in the very true or in the false, and we can see if whether or not the person was consistently responding to the same type of content  Infrequent scale: items on the test that nobody in the normative group endorsed  Negative impression management scale: whether or not a person is lying, over exaggerating  Positive impression management scale: person is not willing to admit certain faults about themselves  Sematic scale: how much pain I am describing I am experiencing  Context is important, and clinicians wouldn’t diagnose someone based on simply one test  Projective hypotheses: (in the psychodynamic paradigm) the notion that highly unstructured stimuli are necessary to bypass defenses in order to reveal unconscious motives and conflicts  These tests are not employed as often because psychodynamic clinicians are not readily available as they used to be, and the increased popularity in other paradigms to explain psychopathology, and also because inter rater reliability is poor  Rorschach inkblot test- not used to provide objective diagnosis, but rather to provide information to the clinician  Thematic apperception test- therapist would be trying to bring out a repressed memory of some sort  Specific Psychological Inventories  Trauma symptom invent
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